Table of Contents
Clay Mining was the real reason for all of my research. It just grew into a full study from the days of the Louisiana Purchase, then to Charles Gratiot and his land grants. The rest is history, so to speak.
Our family always debated the location of the old clay mines, especially if one went under our house. Have decided if one wasn't under us, it was close.
My parents bought a little old “Shot-Gun” house at what became 1517 Brock Street in 1929. Not sure when it was built, but I do know the house or the street didn’t show on a 1900 plat map. It’s a good bet it was built with the World’s Fair Lumber just like many other homes.
I used to visualize a tunnel from south of Dale and east of Kraft going up the hill to Cutter. There were stories of my older cousins riding a small train and a rail car down the hill. This may have been an old fairy tale, but they must have learned the trick somewhere because they did the same thing with a rail car at the old quarry out at Rock Hill where our family had picnics every year. That's a fact.
This reminds me of my first impression of the mine being a small tunnel. Now since I found some clay mine maps the picture is different. The mines were a maze of diggings covering the whole area, with timbers holding everything up. When they were finished they were supposed to blow them up, which was probably not too successful.
Maybe I need to study how clay is made. Have changed my vision of the clay layers, the top layer being the shale clay used for bricks and sewer pipes. This was anywhere from the surface to about fifty or sixty feet down. The fire clay was found much deeper from fifty to one hundred feet deep.
The reason for so many mines in the list may be the old coal and later clay was mined by the pit mine method, just digging from the surface on down. Or digging tunnels and closing them, only to be opened again much later by someone else for fire clay. It seems fire clay was a solid layer through the whole valley which covers from Oakland to Manchester west of Kingshighway, then turning into the valley of Manchester Road to who knows where. This would follow the general path of River Des Peres or Sulphur Springs.
I often wondered if the deep ravines in the fields were from rain water drainage or old tunnels caved in. This must have been the reason we were told there was a 25 year waiting period for buildings. The real building didn't start until after WWII. You can see the spotty development of the older houses. The only old houses in our square block were four houses on Prather, and an old large house on the n/e corner of Plateau and Prather, which was gone by my day. Three houses on Plateau, and five houses on Brock. I am still hoping to find more maps.
There was a time in my younger days when I attempted to find a piece of real clay. That never happened, which makes me think our hill was just discarded slack, junk dirt. Never recall finding a real good piece of clay. They must have cleaned it pretty good.
These hills were our playground, using the gullies which were over our heads, the tall weeds which made good spears if you pulled them straight leaving a good heavy point. Or the crab apples for the war games and a good trash can lid for a shield. They were also good for throwing at bats as if you could hit one.
The dump on Plateau was also our playground not even thinking what a mess that was. Hunting rats was good sport too. As we got older there was junk we could use. Old bed springs became a back stop for playing ball. Later it was a good place to find scrap metal for the war effort. Never did figure what the dump came from, whether it was an old pit mine or just a hole created from dumping the slack clay left over. The original hill had to start at Mitchell and gradually slope down to Dale and Kraft. Can't figure the dump hole, it being at least 50 Feet deep.
At the bottom of the hill at Kraft and Dale there was a pond and in the middle was a sewer stack which was about Four foot high. After the war this hole was filled due to the grading which made the lot level with Brock St. and the sewer top level with the alley to Dale.
This low spot was in the path of an old creek that originated approximately at a spring behind St. Mary’s Hospital and followed a path across McCausland, ran behind the houses on the north side of Dale, and crossed Dale. Then it ran behind the houses at Dale and Prather, through our old pond at Brock and along the south side of Dale and all the way to River Des Peres. In later years it filled up the quarry at Manchester and Mitchell. The sewer must carry that water to River Des Peres now.
In cold years the pond was used for skating until we got older and could skate on the lagoon in the park, or Jefferson Lake. The north side of our hill had the best sleigh riding. This included Prather, Brock, Kraft, and Fairmont. Franz Park was the only good place to sleigh ride, when allowed. It had to be well frozen. The streets on the south side of the hill were too busy.
We could have gone through the fields all the way to my aunt’s house on Louisville, but never did. By the time I could walk the roads were paved. For the life of me, I do not remember the clay mine works at Highland #4. Never went into that field. This could be where the bats came from every evening in the summer.
The only plat maps of Clay Mines I have, in the Dogtown area, are of Highlands #4, and Gittens. I waited a long time to see what a clay mine was like. Hope it doesn’t take too long to find the rest, if they exist. Someday I’ll get to Jefferson City and see what they have.
The large 1987 map which charts some 90 mines gives several references which could help some young, energetic historian dig a little deeper before all the info is lost.Back to top
These mines are:
Wheeler, Herbert Allen 1896-Clay Deposits- Mo. Geological Survey Vol. XI 1st Series.
Ladd, G.E.-1890-The clay, stone, lime and sand industries of St. Louis County Missouri Geological Survey, Bulletin #3. (This is the only reference of this list I’ve read).
Fenneman, Nevin M.-1911-Geology and mineral resources of the St. Louis Quadrangle, Missouri-Illinois U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 438.
Shumard, B.F.-1855- The Geology of St. Louis County, in Swallow, G.C., First and Second annual reports of the Geological Survey of Missouri.
Personal interviews with St. Louis historians.
Saeger, William Edgar,-1975- Geological and subsurface investigations of the St. Louis, Mo. Metropolitan Area: Unpublished Masters Thesis, Wash. Univ.- St. Louis.
Pirtie, I.J.-1909-23rd annual report of the State Mine Inspector.
In the peak years of mining (1830-1930's) everything was done by hand in the Cheltenham area. But in 1852, the coming of the railroad changed things.
I really don't know how the workers got down into the mine before the railroad. (I suppose mules worked the ropes) But after that the workers would go down the shaft in a cage. They worked in what they called "a stall". As I said above, they must have just followed a seam of clay, building the stalls as they went. I have maps that show squares of sections. I also have a small picture of a man standing at a mine entrance at the base of a hill. This shows the shale clay over the entrance.
I suppose it follows that after a day's work, they would put dynamite in holes to break up the clay, and leave before blasting. The next day the loose clay was loaded in a small box-car then pulled by mules to the cage. Once the “Cagers” transferred the clay to the outside, it was loaded onto cars, and taken to the factory yards where it cured for from 3 to 5 years. Once cured, it would be ground and pulverized, rubbed through a screen, then made into bricks.
As I write this, I wonder what the mules did during blasting. It’s possible they didn’t use blasting in the early days, just picks and shovels, which the workers had to pay for themselves. I read they got 35 to 40 cents a ton for the digging and loading. Then with the steam engine, I suppose they quit using mules, or not.
It was a sad thing for the mules. They were a small white breed of the Missouri Mule. Their hoofs were smaller, using six nails instead of eight. They were kept in the tunnel, went blind, and died there.
You can get an idea as to how many mules were involved. Around 1915, the Hydraulic Brick Co. had 500 mules. The earlier Cheltenham or Evans and Howard, The Laclede Co. and The Missouri Brick Co. could have had an equal amount.
Something new as of 2005: The subject of use of “Dog Carts”. I will add as the story progresses.
The Fire Clay was soft, white, and porous. It was removed like chunks of coal. It then could be set aside up to five years, then crushed and mixed with other clay. I suppose you could say it was mixed into a cement like mixture. In the old days master molders would form the bricks by hand by the thousands.
In later days mass production was introduced and then the bricks were made by the millions. I’m sure men had to be involved in preparing the material, but just used fewer men. The main tasks were: “setters and burners” who placed the green bricks into the kilns, The “firemen” who kept the fires going, The “off bearers” who wheeled away the brick after baking. Terra-Cotta took more hands on work. This reminds me, about the choice to make fire brick instead of great china. The regular bricks only needed the shale clay. But the fire clay was claimed to be as good as any in the world. So the easy, cheaper way went to fire brick, instead of beautiful dishes.
The world was vastly changed with building bricks. Everywhere you look, whether you live in a brick house, or walk on a sidewalk or street, or use a sewer, or burn coal in an old furnace, you will find bricks. This wasn’t just the United States, but the world over.
Have not really settled on which Clay Mine was in “The Glades”.
Here are several choices: As of 2013, I choose “Highland” Fire Clay south of Oakland.
1) Grandview Fire Clay at Dale, near Louisville (1909-1911).
2) Missouri Fire Brick at Kraft north of Dale (1911).
3) Cheltenham Mine at Forest and Mitchell (Now Plateau)1937.
4) Highland Fire Clay Mine at West Park, Louisville, and Villa, and Kraft 1865 to the early 1940’s. This was more on the north edge of the Glades.
This may have been the same area changing hands through the years. I have been leaning toward the idea, the whole area south of Dale and from Manchester to McCausland was under the same management in one big sweep in the valley up the hill, changing hands through the years.
New Find as of February 11, 2006
From Missouri Historical Survey VOL.X1 1896
The plastic clays that are sufficiently resistant to withstand a temperature of 2500 degree F and upwards are confined in Missouri to horizons near the base of the coal measures. All the strictly refractory clays thus far found in the state outside of the flint clays occur in beds just above the lower Carboniferous.
There are very extensive beds of so-called fireclays in the upper coal measures, and some seemingly high grade fireclays in the tertiary formations, but none of them when tried, were found to come up to the requirements of a first-class firebrick, though many of them are excellent stoneware or potters’ clays, as they can stand from 2,000 to 2,300 degrees. The total output of plastic fireclay at present amounts to about 209,000 tons, which is valued at the point of shipment at an average value of $1.00 a ton, or a total of $209,000. The output is steadily increasing under normal business conditions.Back to top
St. Louis County and City
Wherever the coal measures occur in the city and county of St. Louis, a persistent, very important bed of fireclay is found resting on a ferruginous sandstone. The latter is the basal member of the coal measures, and surrounds the St. Louis or lower Carboniferous limestone. The seam of fireclay varies greatly in purity, physical properties and thickness, but it never entirely thins out. It varies from three feet in thickness at a small outlying basin near Kirkwood, to thirty feet near the Chain of Rocks, and averages from five to eight feet. On account of the persistence, importance, and the large extent to which the clay is utilized in Cheltenham it is designated as the Cheltenham Fireclay Seam. The localities as well as the coal measures at the base of which the fireclay occurs is a depth of 5 to 120 feet below the surface.
The Cheltenham fireclay varies from light to dark gray in color, except at or near the outcrop, where it is always heavily stained yellow, from decomposition of the iron pyrites that it contains. It is very hard, compact, and massive when freshly mined, and appears to be devoid of plasticity, but when finely ground, or weathered, it becomes very plastic.
When used for the lighter grades of ware, it is always weathered one-half to three years, and occasionally for six or seven years. This not only increases the plasticity, but renders the clay more uniform, tractable and safer working. The clay is usually very course grained, and noticeably sandy, though occasionally it is fine grained and seemingly free from grit. It has a very high density that is characteristic of most coal measure fireclays, and its specific gravity ranges from 2.40 to 2.47.
The unusual coarseness of grain and the high density renders the clay eminently refractory, so that it can be heated to 2,500 degrees to 2,700 degrees F before failing, in spite of having from 5.5 to 7.5% of the fluxing impurities. This is very high for a fireclay. If some of the iron and other fluxing impurities are removed by washing the refractoriness is greatly increased, and it can withstand 2,700 degrees. And upwards, which exceeds the highest temperatures of steel or glass furnaces.(Among the list of impurities is one of my favorites, Sulphur-0.1 to 1.0% and Sulphuric anhydride or acid-0.1 to 0.8%. Not much, but may be enough to supply Sulphur Springs).
The fireclay seam is usually near the surface, and often outcrops along the base of the stream valleys. The shafts seldom exceed 20 feet in depth. The seam is nearly horizontal, with only gentle dips and rolls, and is usually overlain by a thin coal seam that is often less than one inch in thickness, though occasionally 6 to 22 inches. There is usually a zone 2 to 4 feet thick in the bed of clay that is much purer than average, and is selected for glass pots, zinc retorts and special purposes. This purer portion is usually in the middle of the bed, occasionally at or near the top, and sometimes in the lower portion. The upper 6 to 12 inches of the seam are generally darker on account of the presence of organic matter, and are sometimes very pyrite. The bottom of the seam is always sandy, and the fireclay usually passes into the underlying ferruginous sandstone by a transition bed of very sandy, green, very impure fireclay.
The fireclay usually has the very economical thickness of 5 to 8 feet, and on account of its freedom from water, as it is always capped by an impervious shale, it is very cheaply worked by the room and single entry system of mining. The entries are from 5 to 8 feet in width, and the rooms from 8 to 20 feet, with intervening pillars which are from 15 to 30 feet in thickness which are drawn after the rooms are exhausted. The clay is usually sheared at the sides of the room or entry with hand picks and then blasted loose with powder.
The “mine run” or average of the Cheltenham fireclay seam sells on board the cars for $.75 to 41.75 a ton, and the picked or selected portions of the seam bring from $2.00 to $5.00 a ton, to as high as $12.00 for pot clay, while the washed clay sells for $12.00 to $14.00. The clay lands are often leased by miners who sell on the open market, on a royalty basis of 5 to 15 cents a cubic yard.
The Cheltenham fireclay seam is the source of supply of seven fire-brick factories in St. Louis and of three washing establishments for supplying the glass pot trade. It is the base of a mixture used at two large sewer-pipe plants, and it is extensively used for buff, enameled and other ornamental brick and terra cotta at five yards. The fireclay is extensively shipped to the zinc smelters in Illinois, Missouri and Kansas and the pot clay is shipped all over the country, as it enjoys a very high reputation for strength and refractoriness.Back to top
"Mines of St. Louis (From Map of 1987 by Mimi Garstang)
Missouri Department of Natural Resources
Division of Geology and Land Survey
This was a great find. One day back in 2004 after dropping Mark off in Rolla, I decided to stop at Rolla School of Mines thinking they had to have something on Clay Mines. WRONG. So I was led to another source; the Dept. of Natural Resources. There I met D.C. Smith who introduced me to a goldmine of clay mine maps. He was quite gracious and kept pulling them out. I picked out those that looked familiar as fast as I could. To my surprise he offered to make copies for me. To him I will always be thankful. He also made copies for Bob Corbett. He went all out for us. It just maybe I missed some for I worked so fast, discarding anything that didn’t seem to be in our area.
Now, these were but a drop in the bucket compared to the many mines listed. It seems I have seen some of these maps in St. Louis, but the city workers did not seem to know what they were getting into when there were cave-ins. Someday I will get to Jefferson City or somewhere to find more solid history on the mines.
1)“Chouteau Mine” Along Berthold near Kingshighway 4 miles west of the Courthouse. 30 Ft deep shaft 2 to 4 Ft thick coal. Date-1853
2)“Hydraulic Press Brick #3” At New Manchester and River Des Peres 5 miles north of Hydraulic #2 75 Ft. deep shaft 7 Ft. thick clay. Date 1896.
3)“A.C. Steuver Mine” At Macklind and Berthold, south of Forest Park, 90 Ft. deep shaft, clay. Date 1909-1911.
4)“Highlands Co. Mine” at Macklind, Cairns, Oakland, and Berthold. 26-28 Ft deep shaft, 2-4 Ft thick coal and maybe clay. Date?
5) “Unknown mine” at Macklind to Arena and south to near Manchester, 40 Ft.deep shaft, 2 Ft.thick, Coal Date 1860’s to late 1800’s. There is now a picture of Highland Factory at Oakland and Mackland. I am leaning toward all the diggings along Oakland was for that brick factory. (2013).
6) “David Jones Mine” at Forest Park beneath portion of St. Louis Zoo, 25 Ft. deep shaft, 2 to 4 Ft. thick Coal. Date early 1900’s, voids at 500 Ft. elevation.
7) “Unknown mine” beneath Deaconess Hospital, a slope unknown thickness of coal. Date 1920’s.
8) “Gittens Mine” between Clayton Ave. and Berthold just west of Tamm Ave. Three shafts 100 Ft deep thickness unknown, Clay. Date 1914-1917, controlled 26 acres.
9) “Highlands #4” at Louisville, West Park, Kraft, and Villa, slope and shaft 7 Ft. thick clay, 1937 once owned by Pittsburg Plate Glass-Clay Div. 7 Ft. wide, 6 Ft. high entry tunnels.
10) “Missouri Fire Brick Mine” at Kraft and Dale. 44 Ft. deep. Shaft- unknown, thickness unknown.
11) “Grandview Fire Clay/Van Cleave Mine” at Dale near Louisville. Slope, unknown thickness. Date 1909-1911.
12) “Missouri Fire Clay Mine” at Louisville, north of Dale Ave.-Shaft. Date-1911. (Ref Highland #4 Mine at same location. Need to check. This is a typical condition of different years, different owners).
13) “The Diggings” “Dogtown” 10-20 Ft. deep shafts and 2to4 Ft. thick coal. The date was late 1800’s. Numerous small shafts to reach coal for domestic use. Many shafts in residential basements.
14) “Roberts Hiram Mine” at Victoria, west of Hampton. 75Ft.deep shaft of unknown thickness. Clay Date 1911.
15) “Henry and Hiram Roberts Mine” at Sulphur and Hampton. 75 Ft. deep shaft of unknown thickness of Clay. Date unknown.
16) “Berreshelm’s Mine” at Pierce and West Park.(Slope) Clay of unknown thickness and unknown date.
17) “Mitchell’s Mine” at Pierce and Victoria. Clay unknown, shaft unknown, thickness unknown and date of mining unknown.
18) “Jones Mine” north of New Manchester to West Park and between Pierce and Sublette. This was west of Wrisberg. 75 Ft. deep shaft Clay 9 Ft. thick. Date 1883. Possibly owned by Berresheim later.
19) “Evans and Howard #7 Mine” Pit north of Wrisburg between League, West Park, and Lilly, north of River Des Peres. 45 Ft. deep shaft and 1 Ft.thick clay. Date 1896.
20) “Hydraulic Fire Clay Mine” at Sublette and Berthold Shaft and unknown thickness of Coal and Clay. Date unknown.
21) “Evans and Howard Mine” at Howard Station on Mo. Pacific and Frisco Railroad. 50 Ft deep shaft unknown thickness clay Date 1855 adjacent to Evans and Howard Factory.
22) “Hydraulic Press Brick #2 Mine” at southwest corner of Kingshighway and St. Louis (Mackland) at Frisco R/R. 65 Ft. deep shaft 3 inches thick coal and 7 Ft.thick clay. Date 1896. Entries 8-9 Ft. wide 20 Ft. pillars.
23) “Hydraulic Press Brick Mine#4 mine” at Kingshighway and McCree 65 Ft. deep shaft unknown thickness clay Date 1909.
24) “Sublette and Thomas Mine” at corner of Shaw and Hereford. Shaft unknown thickness coal. Date 1842-1856.
25) “Sublette Mines” (3 mines) at Sublette to Marconi, south to Columbia (Sulphur Springs Farm). 3 or more shafts unknown thickness coal. Date 1835-1842.
26) “Laclede Christy #7 Mine” at Wilson, Pattison, Lilly, and Macklind. Shaft and Drift 6 in. thick clay Date 1915-1921 Entries 9 Ft. 6 in. wide. Adjoins Evans and Howard property on the north.
27) “Tiepelman Pit Mine” south of River Des Peres at Sublette. Drift thickness unknown clay Date 1890.
28) “Evans and Howard #6 Mine” Pit in west St. Louis south of River Des Peres. 65 Ft. deep shaft 2 in.thick coal and 7 Ft. thick clay Date 1896.
29) “Lagarce Pit Mine” at base of hill south of River Des Peres thickness unknown clay date 1890.
30) “Laclede Mine” at south bank of River Des Peres Drift 18 In.thick coal and 6 to 7 Ft.thick clay. Date 1855-1869? (Laclede bought mine from Hamilton and Green in 1869. Green became president of Laclede)
31) “Evans and Howard #11 Mine” at n/w CORNER OF Manchester and Hampton. 47 Ft. deep shaft 6 to 8 Ft. thick clay Date 1911.
32) “Cheltenham Clay Company Mine” at Forest and Mitchell. Shaft of unknown thickness Clay Date 1916 5 Acres controlled.
33) “Gilker Fire Clay Mine” at n/w corner of Manchester and McCausland immediately west of Matthieson and Hegler. Drift 5 Ft. deep clay. Date 1896. Pillars robbed. Pillars were 10 to 17 Ft. with entries 7 Ft. wide and 100 or 140 Ft. long.
34) “Matthieson and Hegker Mine” at n/w corner of Forest and Manchester. (One mile west of Cheltenham, north of New Manchester). Drift 4 Ft. 6 In. deep. Clay Date 1863-1896, 11 acres mined out by 1896.
35) “Arrow #1 Mine Van Cleave” at 6500 Southwest Blvd. 45 Ft. deep shaft, unknown thickness clay Date 1863-1896. Joins Laclede Christy #17 mine.
36) “Laclede-Christy Grandview #17 Mine” at St. Louis and San Francisco R/R. Southwest Ave. north of Columbia and Southwest. Three drifts unknown thickness. Clay Date 1923-1945. Pillars removed. Older mine to south of #17 at Tamm Ave.
37) “Laclede Christy #11 Mine at Columbia to Elizabeth and Hampton to Sulphur. Shafts 7 Ft. 6 in. deep Coal? and Clay. Date 1918-1923. Entries 11 Ft. wide and drilled into Krummel and Buchner mine to the south.
38) “Laclede Christy #1 & #2 Mines” at Hampton. Deep workings from Hampton to January and Columbia to Wilson. Drifts and Shafts. 20 to 30 Ft. deep workings unknown thickness. Clay Date 1900-1947. Pillars removed.
39) “Krummel and Buchner Mine” at Columbia and 59th street. 44 Ft. deep coal 2 Ft.6in. thick, and 92 Ft. deep clay 7 Ft. thick. Date 1911. Intersepted by Laclede Christy #1 & #2 mines.
40) “Guelker #4 mine” at Sublette from Sublette to Stephen and Elizabeth to Bischoff. Shaft 7 Ft. deep Clay. Date 1911-1919. Joins Laclede Christy #4 mine.
41) “Laclede-Christy #4 Mine” at Columbia, Sublette, Wilson, and Edwards. Shafts 7 Ft. 6 In deep. Clay Date 1914-1948. Joins Guelker #4 Mine.
42) “Edwards and Hereford Mine” at Marconi, Southwest and Kingshighway. 3 shafts unknown thickness. Coal Date unknown.
43) “Blackmer Post Mine” Arsenal, Railroad, Columbia, and Kingshighway. 90 Ft. deep shaft. Unknown thickness Clay Date 1878. Owned 60 Acres.
44) “Van Cleave Mine” at Southwest and Watson Road. 110 Ft. deep shaft unknown thickness Clay Date 1903.
45) “Blackmer Post Mine” at Watson Road. 80 Ft. deep shaft unknown thickness. Clay Date 1909-1913.
46) “Jamieson Pit Mine” North of Scanlan opposite Coffin Mine. Shaft unknown thickness. Clay Date 1896.
47) “Coffin Mine” at Scanlan near Gratiot. 60 Ft. deep shaft 4-6 Ft. thick. Clay Date 1878-1895. Owned by Jamieson in 1878, by Coffin in 1892, and by American Clay in 1895.
48) “Prime Western Spelter Co.” at Watson and Fyler. Slope mine with air shaft. Workings 50 Ft. deep unknown thickness Clay Date 1909.
49) “Humes Mine” at Sublette and Fyler. Shaft unknown thickness. Coal/Clay? Date 1911.
50) “Mississippi Glass Mine” at Sublette. 97 Ft. deep shaft unknown thickness. Clay Date 1909.
51) “Tole and Thorp Fire Clay Mine” two miles west of Parker-Russell Mines on spur of Oak Hill R/R near Insane Asylum. Coal 32 Ft. deep shaft an Clay 93 Ft.deep shaft. (Coal 2-4 Ft. thick and Clay 3-12 Ft. thick. Date 1880. 43 Acres mined.
52) “Parker-Russell Mine” at Fairview west of Kingshighway. Shaft unknown thickness, coal/clay Date 1911.
53) “Russell Mine” Five shafts 35 to 45 Ft.deep and 4 to 5 Ft.thick. Coal Date 1840’s to 1880’s. One of the first coal mines in the city of St. Louis?
54) “Hallock Clay Mine” (Wade Brothers Mine) at Arsenal Street at entrance to Tower Grove Park. Slope with 2 air shafts. Unknown thickness, Clay Date 1908. Mined clay beneath extensive Russell coal mines.
55) “Parker-Russell Mine” Gustine at McDonald. 20-30 Ft. deep Shaft, 6 Ft. thick coal. Date 1917. Abandoned and reopened in 1917 for local use.
56) “Hunt and McDonald Mine” at Arsenal, Grand, Gravois, and Gustine. 22-38 Ft.deep shafts 3-6 Ft.thick coal Date 1853.
57) “Morrow and McGreggor Mine” South and West of Grand and Gravois, North of Chippawa, and south of Hunt and McDonald. 4 shafts 3 Ft. 6 in. thick coal Date 1853.
58) “Peter Delore’s Mine” south of Morrow and McGreggor East of Gravois. Shaft 3 Ft. 6 in.thick coal Date 1853
59) “Hydraulic Press Brick #6 Mine” at Chippewa, Meramec, Alexander, and Bamberger. 16 Ft. deep shaft. 3 in. thick coal 8 Ft. thick clay. Date 1925. Most entries under bricked streets. 6 to 7 Ft. thick. Others timbered 7 x 8 Ft.
60) “Bingham Mines” at Oceola and Gravois. Shaft 2-4 Ft. thick coal Date late 1800’s. Intercepted this mine in 1930 when Gravois was widened.
61) “Parker-Russell Fire Clay Mine” at Tholozan and Marganford. Coal 80 Ft. deep and 4-6 Ft. thick. Clay-117 Ft. deep shaft and 3-7 Ft.thick. Dates Coal 1820-1887 - Clay 1866-1887. First coal discovered in St. Louis. Pillars robbed in 1887.
62) “Parker-Russell Mine” at Morganford and Potomac. Shaft thickness unknown Coal Date 1911 -Clay date?
63) “The Alley” at Beck, Morganford, Kingshighway, and Chippewa. Shafts and Pits thickness unknown. Coal Date late 1800’s-early 1900’s. Miners worked this area for their own domestic use.
64) “Laclede-Christy #3 Mine” at Bancroft, Pernod, January, and Macklind. Shafts, Thickness unknown Coal Date early 1900’s - Clay Date? Joins Laclede-Christy #8 mine, but is an older mine.
65) “Goetz Mine” at Sublette and Pernod. Shaft, thickness unknown Clay Date 1911.
66) “Superior Press Brick Mine” at Marquette, Pernod, Regal, and Taedmar. 6 Shafts 25-100 Ft. deep thickness unknown Coal Date 1908 - Clay? Coal mined first, then reopened to mine clay. Between Marquette and Potomac Tunnels 25 Ft. deep. Tunnels partially collapsed.
67) “Laclede-Christy #8 Mine” at Bancroft, Pernod, January, and Kingshighway. Workings 53-60 Ft. deep and 6 Ft. thick Clay Date 1916-1923. Joins Laclede-Christy #3 to east. No pillars Beneath Chippewa.
68) “Mitchell Clay Manufacturing Co. Mine” at January between Tholozan and Chippewa. 27 Ft. deep shaft. 6 Ft. thick Clay Date 1937-1944. 6 Ft. 7 in. high and 6 Ft. wide entry tunnels. Props pulled after mining.
69) “Unknown Mine Name” at Hampton and Devonshire. 28 Ft. deep workings. Approx. 10 Ft.of void. Coal/Clay Date unknown. 5 Ft. actual void found and 5 Ft. fill material encountered.
70) “Christy Fire Clay Mine” ½ mile west of Morganford and Gravois. Shaft up to 14 Ft. thick Clay Date 1896.
71) “Christy Mine” at Delor and Alfred. Shaft thickness unknown. Coal-Clay Date Late 1800’s.
72) “Christy Fire Clay Mine” at Morganford and Gravois 65 Ft.deep shaft. One foot thick coal and 3-4 Ft. thick Clay Date 1857, Room and Pillar mine.
73) “Oak Hill Fire Clay #1 Mine” at Walsh, Neosho, Gerrit, and Ray. 30-70 Ft. deep shaft and 7 Ft. thick Clay Date 1922-1928. 8x7 Ft.entries. Top down after mining.
74) “Jamieson Mine” at Bartolds 1Mi.north of Bartolds near Hanley Rd. 3 shafts 2-40Ft.6In. and 1 48Ft.deep 4-14Ft.thick clay Date 1882-1886.
75) “Jamieson French Mine” at Hanley and Bruno Road. Shaft 73 Ft. 8 in. deep and 8 Ft.6 in. thick Clay Date 1911. Sold to Evans and Howard.
76) “Bausch Clay Mine” at Hanley Rd. and Eager Rd. 60 Ft.deep shaft (Two air shafts) thickness unknown Clay Date 1909. (Controlled 18 acres 1916).
77) “George J.Berresheim #2 Mine” at Redbud and St. Louis Belt and Terminal R/R. Shaft Thickness unknown. Clay Date 1914.
78) “George J. Berresheim #3 Mine” at Linden and Buck Ave. 60 Ft. deep shaft thickness unknown. Clay Date 1918-1920’s. Coal at 18 Ft. depth but not mined. Tunnels are open.
79) “Unknown Name Mine” at Mid County Industrial Park. 35-45 Ft. deep shafts Thickness unknown. Tunnels Open.
80) “Evans and Howard #5 Mine” at 840 Midland and Vinita Park. Workings 25-75 Ft. deep. Thickness unknown. Clay Date 1917-1954. Partially collapsed.
81) “Unknown Name Mine” at St.Charles Rock Road and Lackland. Shaft Thickness unknown. Clay Date unknown.
82) “Unknown Name Mine” at I-70 and Venture Store. 45-75 Ft. deep shafts. Thickness unknown. Clay Date 1924. Some supports standing and some pulled. Deeper props still standing.
83) “Gartsides Mine” near City Farm, 1/3 Mi. north of Russell Mine. Five shafts 47 Ft. deep and 4 Ft. 6 in.thick coal. Date 1855.
84) “Buchannan’s Mine” at West River DesPeres (Location too vague).41 Ft.deep shaft. Thickness unknown. Coal Date 1853.
85) “Watkins Coal Bank” Southeast T 47 N/R 7W. Drift 4-6 Ft. thick Coal Date 1800’s.
86) “Hanbleton Mine” between Belfontain and New Bremen Cemetery. Bank 8 Ft. thick Clay Date 1853.
87) “Shreve Mine” 1/4 Mi. west of Hambleton Mine. Thickness unknown. Coal Clay Date 1853.
88) “Sattler Pits” Schantz land on Watkins Creek near Chain of Rocks. 50 Ft. deep shaft Coal 20 in.thick /Clay 6 Ft.thick Date 1871-1880.
89) “Unknown Mine” on Meintz land between Baden and Chain of Rocks on Columbia Bottoms Road. Depth unknown 7 Ft. thick Clay Date 1890.
90) “Baden Mine” Depth unknown Thickness unknown Clay Date unknown.
91) “Malcom Station Mine” southeast of Creve Coeur Lake. Depth unknown Date unknown.
92) “St. Louis Clay Burning Mine” Castello near Creve Coeur Lake. Everything unknown Clay Date unknown.
93) “St. Louis Vitrified Fire Brick Mine” at Dorsette and Fee Fee Road. Everything unknown Clay Date unknown.
94) “Louis and Harter Mine” at end of Halls Ferry Road at Broadway. Depth unknown 4 Ft. thick Coal Date unknown.
95) “Kemper College Mine” along Arsenal between Hampton and Kingshighway. Depth unknown 2-4 Ft. thick. Coal Date 1838. Operated by students.Back to top
(from The History of Cheltenham and St. James Church Pg.8)
(Also from Clay Mine Records and Maps)
The exact date of the finding of clay at Cheltenham is not fully established, but Paul Gratiot engaged in the manufacture of Fire Brick in a small way as early as 1837. His works were situated on Kingshighway. His father Charles Gratiot received the Spanish Land Grant of Gratiot League Square. In the list of his improvements included a Coal Mine.(See “The Beginnings”). He received the grant in early 1790. My research shows the clay was found deeper than coal, and cannot really prove when the clay was found. I have not dug deep enough to verify any of this. The Sulphur Springs could have made someone recognize a lot was deep down there. The English knew all about Fire Clay which is evidenced by their fine pottery.
One Plant that seems to have been missed is the Highland Fire Clay Company. Lo and behold I just moved it temporarily into position #1. I have a 1920'S Aerial photo of the Highlands with the clay company to the east. Highlands Clay is listed as a mine not a factory. In the right bottom corner the picture shows another land fill area to the west of the Amusement Park. This became the site of the Arena by 1929.
This whole area from Macklind to Hi-Point was either Coal or Clay Mines.
Steuver wanted to mine into Forest Park, but was stopped by the City. He then sold the Highlands.
The plant’s property went from Macklind to the Highlands, along Oakland. Both the plant and the amusement park was owned by Anton Steuver. This was in the early 1900’s.
As of 29, July 2004, a newspaper article came to light. It described ownership of the Highlands Fire Clay Company. Founded by J. M. Thomas in 1865 who owned and operated 35 acres. His grandson Jack E. Thomas became President of Thomas Mining Corporation and Gen. Manager of Highland Fire Clay Co. at 1129 Sanford. Not sure what year. The story in Bob Corbett’s Home Page sounds like many of the unknown mines along Clayton are Thomas mines. The older mines being coal and the latter mines being clay.
The mine map of Highlands #4 at West Park and Louisville lists George E. Thomas. Some areas checked out were mined out. The name of the previous owner as Pittsburg Plate Glass Company. For having a map of the #4 mine, which is only one of many mines. Have not been able to find many of the multitude of maps, it seems strange the owner or operator of this mine was not heard of before.
After checking the many notes I have, I found the Thomas name to show up quite a lot.
1)Somewhere around late 1830’s Sublette leased 15 acres to Owen Williams and Daniel Thomas.
2)1842-1856 Sublette and Thomas coal mine was at the corner of Shaw and Hereford.
3)Late 1800’s Diggins on Dry Hill coal included W.O. Thomas.
4)Found W.O. Thomas property on the north side of Manchester between Sublette and Macklind. This was on the 1878 Cheltenham Map. This also included a home on Manchester, west of Kingshighway. And a pit mine on Crapster land on Manchester at Sublette.
5)Found the Thomas name in the 1860,70,and 80’s in the Cheltenham Census.
Now the task of organizing all the names. Do know they came from Wales.
“Laclede Fire Brick Co.#2” Started in 1887 about 300Ft.southwest of #1.
“Laclede Fire Brick Co.#3” Started in 1902 between Wilson and River Des Peres.
About 1910 Laclede consolidated with Christy Fire Clay Co. under the name of “Laclede-Christy”, and operated the plants at 4705 Ridgewood and at Sulphur Springs. The President was James Green. (These plants appear to be the approx.location of Sublette’s old Coal Mines).
James Green had two sons. Thomas Green, who lived on an estate in the 6100 block of West Park until his death. Jack Green, who managed the business after the retirement of his father. In 1937 the officers were J.L. Green President, and W.J. Westphalen Vice-President, and J.N. Baggot Secretary.
“Cheltenham Fire Brick Company” started in 1855, later called “Evans and Howard”. The first factory was at Tamm to Billon and from St.James Church to Manchester. Another factory was west of Kingshighway between the Pacific and the Frisco R.R. Also, without research, there may have been more. Will correct this later.
“Mitchell Clay Manufacturing Co.” started in 1857 on the north side of Manchester between Sublette and Pierce (5625-Lot #3 & 4) President; Stanislaus Mitchell.
“Hanna and Company” started in 1861. President Rogers. This became Hydraulic Press Brick Co. Officers E.C. and T.W. Sterling in 1866. Location east and west of Kingshighway north of Manchester. The company operated plants in 14 other cities. In St. Louis alone in 1904, the company averaged daily, 642,000 bricks or 192,000,000 a year. The company employed 1,050 men that year.
“Blackmer & Post Fire Clay Product Co.” started 1878 on Hereford north of Arsenal. The clay mines adjoined the property to Kingshighway, 60 Acres total.
“Missouri Fire Brick Co.” started in 1882. John Bell President. On corner of Knox and New Manchester.
“The Winkle Terra Cotta Co.” started in 1883. President Joseph Winkle at 5739 Manchester on the north side between Pierce and Sulphur.(Lot #7,8,9,& 10).
“St. Louis Terra Cotta Co.” started in 1894. President D.N. Burrus. Located at 5801-15 Manchester, on the northwest corner of Pierce and Manchester.
“Evans and Howard Fire Brick Co.”(info incomplete). Evans and Howard took over from Cheltenham on Date-? Except that Cheltenham started in 1855. For a while the name stayed Cheltenham with Evans and Howard as officers. There were, eventually three plants that I know of: One at the N/E corner of Tamm and Manchester, One on the south side of Manchester and the tracks west of Kingshighway where the tracks turn away from Manchester. Then one plant west of Macklind east of River Des Peres between Northrop and Pattison.
This retyping was finished 17, Mar 2006. This is not the end of the story.
New information - June 25, 2007
“Allen Percival Green” Born 22 July 1875 in Jefferson City.
He married Sara Josephine Brown of Sedalia on 17 June, 1903. Moved back to Missouri in 1904. He became Vice President and General Manager of the Evans and Howard Fire Brick Company in St Louis. He was the son of Joseph Henry Green. Not sure of a connection with James Green, President of Laclede Christy in 1910.
While working for Evans and Howard, A. P. Green wanted them to buy the Mexico Missouri Fire Brick Co., They refused and he bought it himself. The rest is history.
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