Chronology of Haitian History
Date: Fri, 27 Oct 1995 07:16:40 -0700 (PDT)
Some weeks ago I sent out this chronology and asked for assistance
in checking it and adding to it. Several people made contributions,
and they are woven in the product below.
However, this chronology ends at 1988. Quite a few significant
events have occurred since then, to understate the case. So, here
the next version. Additions and corrections welcomed.
- Dec. 5. Columbus lands at Mole St. Nicholas (Paquin)
- Dec. 24. Santa Maria sank off coast of Cap
- Dec. Columbus settled La Navidad with refuse
from Santa Maria.
- Jan. 14. First armed conflict with Ciguayos.
- 1495 Battle of Santo Cerro, end of effective Indian
- 1505 Sugar is introduced to Hispaniola from the Canary
Islands (Sugar by Plant)
- 1510 First slaves brought to Hispaniola by the Portuguese mostly
from W. Africa (representing such tribal groups as the Ibos,
Senegalese, Bambaras, Aradas, Congolese, and Dambas.
- 1508 Spain send first official cargo of African slaves
to New World. (Paquin)
- 1586 Sir Francis Drake captured Santo Domingo and held
it for a month. (Korngold).
- 1629 First French settlers on Isle de la Tortue and along northern
coast around Port de Paix; refugees from St. Christophe
- 1659 France gains control of Tortuga Island, off the
mainland of the western part of Hispaniola (Sugar by Plant)
- 1670 Louis XIV authorizes the French slave trade in Saint-Domingue.
- 1685 Publication of the CODE NOIR. (Sugar by Plant)
- 1697 Sept. 20. (Heinl) Treaty of Ryswick. Spain recognizes France's
claim to Western St. Domingue. (Paquin)
- 1705 (About) Sugar cultivation on massive scale begins in colony,
changing its economic role in the French empire profoundly.
- 1749 Port-au-Prince founded. (B-Smith)
- 1757 Macandal leads insurrection against the French (Paquin)
- 1758 Macandal captured and executed at Cap Francois (Paquin)
- 1764 Jesuits expelled from Haiti (Heinl, p. 26, note 20)
- 1765 (??) Treaty ending the Seven Years' War. France gives up Canada to
England but keeps Haiti.
- 1760s coffee production becomes economically important.
- 1779 France sends troops from St. Domingue to support
Americans in War of Independence. Troops fight at
- 1788 Le Jeune Case: 14 black slaves brought documented accusations
of abuse against white planter; case was dismissed out
of fear of inciting whites.
- 1789 The Estates General in Paris admits white delegates from the
colonies to the 3rd Estate.
- 1790 Oct. Oge and Chavannes take up arms against
French in North. (Paquin)
- May 15. French National Assembly declares all
free-born men of color eligible to be seated. (Paquin)
- Aug. 14. Ceremony of Bois-Cayman. (Paquin)
- Aug. 22. Revolt of slaves.
- Sept. 11. Whites and mulattos signed a
concordat to give mulattos full citizenship. (Barskett)
- Sept 24. The National Assembly rescinds the May 15 decree.
- 1792 April 4. Famous final decree of French Assembly
giving all free black full citizenship. (Barskett)
- Aug. 29. Sonthonax decrees liberation of slaves. (Paquin)
- Sept. British troops land in St. Domingue. (Paquin)
- Sept. 19. Jeremie. + other places. (Barskett)
- Feb. 4. French freed the slaves. (Cooper, p. 7)
- Feb. 5. Mixed delegation from St. Domingue
seated at Paris National Convention. (Paquin)
- April 6. Toussaint turned back to the French. (Korngold)
- June 4. P-a-P fell to revolution. (Barskett)
- 1795 July 22. Spain and France signed a treaty giving
France the Spanish part of the island. (Barskett)
- March 20. Villate arrested Laveaux. (Korngold)
- March-April Toussaint marches into O Cap; is
declared lieutenant governor by Laveaux. (Paquin)
- May 11. 3rd Commission lands. Task: curb Toussaint's power.
- March. Sonthonax appoints Toussaint commander-
in-chief of French forces. (Paquin)
- April 27. Toussaint forces Sonthonax out. (Korngold).
- Nov. 5. Toussaint agrees to send his sons to
- March 27. General Hedouville landed. Wanted to
divide Rigaud and Toussaint. (Korngold)
- Aug. 31 British troops evacuate Mole. (Paquin)
- Oct. 23 Toussaint enters Cap in triumph.
Hedouville sailed for France. (Paquin)
- May 22. Louverture signs a tripartite treaty w/ US and Britain
- June 13. Toussaint signed a treaty with Britain,
including secret provisions. (Korngold)
- Jan. 26. Toussaint invades Santo Domingo.
Declares slavery abolished. (Paquin)
- July 1. New constitution promulgated. Toussaint
declared governor general for life. St. D. was to be
an independent French state. (Barskett)
- Feb. 1. Christophe refuses Leclerc permission
to land at Cap; sets fire to town. (Paquin)
- March 24. French win at Crete-a-Pierrot (B-Smith)
- March. Leclerc re-introduces slavery. (Barskett)
- June 7. Toussaint betrayed and sent to France. (James)
- June. Yellow fever strikes French. Renewed
- Nov. 1. Leclerc died. General Rochambeau took
- April 7: Toussaint dies in captivity in France. (Paquin)
- May. Britain recommenced war with France and
blockaded Cape Francois. (Barskett)
- May 18. At Arcahaie; Haitian flag is born. (Paquin)
- Nov. 18. Haitian victory at Vertieres (B-Smith)
- Nov. 19. Rochambeau surrendered. (Barskett)
- Nov. 29. French left Haiti (James, 369)
- Jan. 1 Haitian independence declared by
Dessalines at Gonaives.
- Jan.-March Massacre of the French. (Paquin)
- Oct. 8. Dessalines crowned Emperor Jacques I of
- Feb. Dessalines launches unsuccessful invasion
of Santo Domingo.(Paquin)
- May 20. Dessalines ratifies Haiti's first constitution. (Paquin)
- Oct. 17. Revolt against Dessalines. Emperor
betrayed and killed at Pont-Rouge. (Paquin)
- Dec. Haiti declared a republic. Christophe refuses presidency.
- Feb. 17. Christophe proclaimed president of
newly created State of Haiti in North. (Paquin)
- Feb. 17. Christophe's constitution. (BArskett)
- March 11. Petion elected president of republic of Haiti. (Paquin)
- 1808 Dec. 13. Santo Domingo reverted to Spain. (Heinl p. 5.)
- 1809 Nov. French left Samana, now only occupied Santo Domingo.
- July. French left Santo Domingo, finally out of S.D.
- Nov. 2. Rigaud declared L'Etat du Sud. (Paquin)
- 1811 June 2. Christophe crowned King Henry I of Haiti. (Paquin)
- June. King Henry XVIII plans for a re-occupation
of Haiti and re-enslavement of people. (Barskett)
- Sept. French diplomat, Lavayasse, tried to get Christophe and Petion
to recognize France. Neither will do so. (Barskett)
- 1815 Upon the return of Bonapart to France, Haiti again reject union.
- 1816 June 2. Petion declared president for life. (Paquin)
Summer. Louis XVIII again tried to get colonial
status for Haiti. (BArskett)
- March 29. Death of Petion. (Paquin)
- March 30. Boyer elected president for life. (Paquin)
- Oct. 8. Christophe takes his own life. (Paquin)
- Oct. 26. Boyer enters Cap. Haiti reunited. (Paquin)
- 1821 Nov. 30. Santo Domingo became free under Caceres. (Heinl, p. 165.)
- 1822 Feb. 9. Haitian army reaches Ciudad Santo Domingo (Paquin)
Boyer took it. (Heinl, p. 165.)
- 1822-44 Haitian Occupation of Santo Domingo (Sugar by Plant)
- 1825 April 17. Haitian independence recognized by France. (Paquin)
- 1826 Haitian Code Rural adopted. (Sugar by Plant)
- 1838 June 9. Treaty in which France recognizes
Haiti's final and complete independence. (Paquin)
- 1843 B. Ardouin publishes 11 volume work on Haitian history. (B-Smith)
March 13. Boyer abdicates. Provisional government headed by
- 1844 Dominican independence declared for the first time, and
slavery abolished in the eastern part of the island.
(Sugar by Plant)
- March 10. Riviere-Herard invades Santo-Domingo. (Paquin)
April Piquet uprising in South. Acaau heads
Armee Souffrante. (Paquin)
- May 3. Riviere-Herard deposed. Guerrier sworn in a president.
- 1845 April 16. Council of State elects Pierrot
president, following death of Guerrier. (Paquin)
- 1846 March 1. Pierrot deposed. Riche declared president. (Paquin)
- Publication of first volume on Haitian history by
Thomas Madiou. (B-Smith)
- March 1. Soulouque elected president following
death of Riche on Feb. 27. (Paquin)
- 1848 April 16. Soulouque massacres in Port-au-Prince. (Paquin)
- March. Soulouque invades Santo Domingo. (Paquin)
- Aug. 20.
Soulouque proclaimed Emperor Faustin I. (Paquin)
- Jan. 15. Soulouque abdicates. (Paquin)
- Jan. 18. Geffrard takes oath of office as president. (Paquin)
- 1860 March 28 Concordat between the Vatican and Haiti signed. (Paquin)
- 1862 June 5. United States recognizes Haiti. (Paquin)
- 1863 May. Salnave insurrection. (Paquin)
- 1864 Nov. US recognizes Haiti with a treaty of friendship,
commerce, and navigation
- 1865 Dominican independence declared for the second
time. (Sugar by Plant)
- March 13. Fall of Geffrard (Paquin)
- June 14. Salnave sworn in a president of Haiti. (Paquin)
- 1869 Guerre de Salnave or Guerre des Cacos. (Paquin)
Palace blown up. Salnave flees. (Paquin)
- Jan. 15. Salnave tried, condemned and executed. (Paquin)
- March 20. Nissage-Saget elected president. (Paquin)
- Feb. 9 National Palace burns to ground. (Paquin)
- June 11. Germans seize Haitian navy in P-a-P harbor. (Paquin)
- 1874 June 12. Domingue succeeds Nissage-Saget. (Paquin)
- April 15. Domingue deposed (Paquin)
- July 17. Boisrond-Canal elected president. (Paquin)
- 1879 July 17. Boisrond-Canal steps down. (Paquin)
- March 23. Boyer-Bazelais and followers land and seize Mirogoane.
- Sept. 22-25. Bloody week. (Paquin)
- 1884 Jan. 8. Mirogoane falls to government troops. (Paquin)
- Aug. 10. Salomon steps down; sails for France. (Paquin)
- Dec. 16. Legitime declared president. (Paquin)
- 1889 Oct. 17. Hippolyte sworn in as president after
victory over Legitime. (Paquin)
- 1896 March 31. Simon Sam elected president following
death of Hippolyte, March 24. (Paquin)
- May 12. Simon Sam abdicates. Mob uprising in P-a-P. (Paquin)
- July 26 Firmin civil war erupts. (Paquin)
- Sept. 6. Sinking of the Crete-a-Pierrot by
German gunboat Panther at Gonaives. (Paquin)
- Dec. 17. Nord Alexis acclaimed president. (Paquin)
- 1908 Dec. 20. Downfall of Nord Alexis. Antoine Simon
elected president. (Paquin)
- 1911 Aug. 14 Antoine Simon deposed. Leconte president. (Paquin)
- Aug. 7. National Palace blown up. Leconte killed. (Paquin)
- Aug. 12. August inaugurated as president. (Paquin)
- 1913 May 12. Death of Auguste. Oreste inaugurated. (Paquin)
- Jan. 27. Oreste resigns. (Paquin)
- Feb. 8. Zamor elected president. (Paquin)
- Nov. 7. Theodore elected president following departure of Zamor.
- Feb. 22. Theodore steps down. (Paquin)
- March 22. Guillaume Sam takes oath of office as president. (Paquin)
- July 27. Slaughter of political prisoners in
penitentiary. Sam takes refuge in French embassy,
is dragged out and killed by mob. (Paquin)
- July 28. U.S. Marines land in Port-au-Prince. (Paquin)
- Aug. 11. National Assembly elects Dartiguenave president.(Paquin)
- Aug. 21. Americans take charge of Haitian customs houses. (Paquin)
- Sept. Cacos revolt in the ARtibonite and the North. (Paquin)
- Nov. 17-18. Cacos in the North defeated. (Paquin)
- 1916--1924 American occupation of the Dominican Republic (Sugar by Plant)
- 1918 Nov. Caco Rebellion in the North. (Paquin)
- 1919 Oct. 30-31. Death of Charlemagne Peralte. End
of Caco war in the North. (Paquin)
- 1920 May 19. Benoit Batraville killed. End of Caco
Rebellion in the Artibonite. (Paquin)
- Feb. 11. Russell appointed American high commissioner. (Paquin)
- April 10. Borno elected president. (Paquin)
- 1928 Publication of Jean Price-Mars THUS SPOKE THE
UNCLE, the origins of Haitian negritude.
- April 21. Roy assumes powers as provisional president. (Paquin)
- Oct. Student strike at Damien followed by general strike. (Paquin)
- Dec. 6. U.S. opens fire on unarmed peasants at Marchaterre. (B-Smith)
- 1930 General Trujillo assumes power in the Dominican Republic.(Sugar by Plant)
- 1934 Aug. 14. Eng of American occupation. (Paquin)
- 1937 Oct. Trujillo orders massacre of Haitian
population in the Dominican Republic. (Paquin)
- May 15. Lescot succeeds Vincent. (Paquin)
- Dec. 8. Haiti declares war on Japan, Germany, Italy. (Paquin)
- 1944 Publication of MASTERS OF THE DEW by Jacques Roumain. First
major Haitian novel. (B-Smith)
- Jan. General strike; fall of Lescot; army assumes power.
- Aug. 16. Estime elected president.
- 1949 Port-au-Prince International Exposition.
- May 10. Estime deposed. Army assumes power.
- Dec. 6. Magloire inaugurated president.
- 1956 Dec. 12 Magloire fall and goes into exile.
Pierre-Louis takes over as provisional president.
- Feb.--June. Ephemeral presidencies of Sylvain and Fignole.
- Oct. 22. Duvalier inaugurated as president.
- 1958 July 28. Attempted invasion and takeover of palace thwarted.
- 1959 Aug. 13. Attempted Castroite invasion in South fails.
- April. Start of the Barbot insurrection.
- Aug.--Sept. Cantave invasion attempt.
- 1964 April 1. Duvalier president for life. Duvalier changes flag from
blue and red to black and red. (B-Smith)
- Jan. 22. Duvalier announces Jean-Claude will succeed him.
- April 21. Death of Duvalier.
- 1978-1983. Pig population killed in response to Asian Swine Flu.
- 1983 Pope John Paul II visits Haiti and publically
criticizes Duvalier regime.
1986 Feb. 7. Jean-Claude Duvalier flees Haiti.
- March 29. New constitution ratified.
- November 29. Massacre of voters; elections cancelled.
- Jan. 17. Election of Leslie Manigat as president of Haiti.
- June 17. Manigat deposed. General Namphy becomes president.
- Sept. 17. Namphy overthrown, General Prosper Avril becomes president.