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#527: U.S.-Haiti Relations Chronology (fwd)
U.S.-Haiti Relations Chronology By The Associated Press
Chronology of relations between Haiti and the United States:
-1804: Haiti wrests independence from France.
-1849-1913: U.S. warships anchor in Haitian waters 26 times to protect
Americans during more than 100 civil wars, coups,
-1866: Washington recognizes Haiti as independent nation.
-1915-34: Political turmoil prompts U.S. Marine occupation; about 10,000
Haitians die resisting. Americans build up
-1957: Francois ``Papa Doc'' Duvalier comes to power. Terrorizes Haiti
with private militia, but United States tolerates regime
to balance communist Cuba.
-1986: Jean-Claude ``Baby Doc'' Duvalier loses power under U.S.
pressure. Haitian military aborts November 1987 election
-1991: Washington imposes economic sanctions to punish army coup that
ousts President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, elected in
Haiti's first free election in 1990.
-1994: President Clinton imposes total embargo as number of Haitian
refugees swells. In September, he sends 20,000 soldiers
as part of multinational force to restore Aristide to power.
-March 1995: United Nations takes over peacekeeping command. U.S.
contingent reduced to 3,000 soldiers, comprising
nearly half U.N. force.
-June 1995: Relations sour after chaotic election that opposition
parties charge was rigged to favor Aristide's party. Majority of
parties boycott subsequent elections, which international observers say
-November 1997: Peacekeepers start withdrawing. About 500 non-combat
U.S. soldiers remain, building roads, bridges,
wells and fixing schools.
-August 1999: U.S. announces end of permanent military mission, to be
replaced by rotating reservists.