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#2641: 1990 Elections, U.S. Invasion (fwd)

From: Stephen W Hersey <swhers2@pop.uky.edu>

Key Words: 1990 Elections, U.S. Invasion

I've just read an account of the US-led invasion and had a few questions
for the list.  

1.  Is it true that "On December 16, 1990, Haiti held its first and only
election that was judged free and fair by ALL [my emphasis] political
parties and the international community"?  If this isn't true, can anyone
provide evidence to the 
contrary in the form of statements by political parties?  Please note that
I'm not asking if the elections were fair; I only want to know how
observers, parties and candidates perceived them.

2.  Also, which played the greater role in the coup leaders' decision to
agree to Carter, Powell, and Nunn's points of negotiation:  their
negotiations or news that overwhelming force was on the way.  Some say that
the news that troops were on the way almost scuttled the negotiations,
others argue that they hastened the deal.

3.  What active part, if any, did Emile Jonassaint play in the decision to
sign the agreement with Carter and crew, and was Emile Jonassaint more than
a puppet of the military leaders?