[Date Prev][Date Next][Thread Prev][Thread Next][Date Index][Thread Index]
a618: December 17 Events: A Report of CEDH (Part I) (fwd)
From: Stanley Lucas <email@example.com>
FOREWORD: THE NORMATIVE CODE
The foregoing preliminary remarks are imperative.
As in the crisis that has lingered for years amongst political and social institutions in the country, what is at stake is the privilege of transgression and the means to be used in order to force that transgression upon and against everyone and all.
In lieu of introduction it is important to explicitly state which normative code we refer to.
Without the acceptation of that code, in the absence of that link, the furtherance of the issue would be meaningless.
EXODUS: "Thou shall not kill", Ex. 20,13.
THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS:
Article 3.- Everyone has the right to life, liberty and the security of person.
CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC, MARCH 29, 1987
"It is the State's imperious obligation to warrant the right to life." article 19
"The right to ownership of private property is recognized and warranted". Article 36
THE PENAL CODE
Art. 356.- Anyone who has willfully set fire to buildings, ships, boats, stores, construction sites, whenever they are inhabited or serve as habitation, and generally speaking to inhabited locations or serving as habitations, whether they belong or not to the arsonist shall be punished by death.
(The Constitution having abolished the death penalty, the enforceable punishment is life imprisonment).
Art. 361.- Any looting, all damages willfully caused to produced, merchandise, real property, perpetrated in by pillagers in groups or in bands and with the open use of force, shall be punished by a time sentence to forced labor.
Monsignor Luigi BONAZZI, Apostolic Nuncio, Dean of the Diplomatic Corps.
"We are preoccupied by certain serious attacks which seem to again call in question the freedom of opinion, including freedom of the Press, as well as by the impunity which continues to cover certain crimes committed against journalists
Political parties being the expression of the free democratic organization of citizens, how can one not reprobate the attacks perpetrated against the headquarters of political parties without any decisive intervention of the Police? (December 27, 2001)
Amnesty International: The Haitian Government is under the obligation to protect all citizens without exception, and must act decisively in order to put an end to acts of violence perpetrated as reprisal: (Dec. 18, 2001).
THE EVENTS OF DECEMBER 17, 2001
The events of Monday, December 17, 2001, come within an historical context. They cannot be interpreted outside of a retrospective that includes, firstly, the coup attempted by Roger Lafontant, on January 7th, 991, which was checkmated by a general uprising of the population. Seven month later, the coup of September 30th, 1991, occurred which lasted until the return of the Constitutional President on October 15, 1994.
These two events occupy a primordial place in the "lavalassian" discourse, in its imaginary, and its propaganda. They are in no way foreign to the call made by Aristide for a "Zero tolerance" policy, a coded expression aiming at immediate physical elimination. Spreading the rumor of a "coup" not only becomes a means of periodically provoking and blocking attempts to mobilize citizens, but also to keep on the alert groups of intervention acting upon command of the Lafanmi Lavalas party. During the weeks preceding the elections of May 2000,which were on several occasions deferred by the Préval Government, the slogan is launched for mass mobilization against an "electoral coup".
One must recall that:
- At end of January 1991, less than two weeks after the Lafontant event, the rumors of a new attempted coup causes popular uprising and is going to cost, among other things, the live of three blind musicians who were "necklaced".
- On May 28th, 1999, the large gathering organized by civil society to protest against insecurity, is brutally interrupted and denounced by the spokesmen of Lafanmi Lavalas as an attempt to destabilize the government by old and new "putschist" agents.
- On July 28, 2001, the mysterious attack against the Petion-Ville Precinct and the Military Academy is immediately presented by the government as an attempt to overthrow the government. Up to this date, no explanation corroborating these declarations has been provided by the authorities.
- More recently, on November 22nd, 2001, Senator Dany Toussaint has publicly declared: "all the circumstance favorable to the occurrence of a coup prevailed". (Le Nouvelliste)
Starting in the month of July 2001, pursuant to the successive failures of the negotiations led with the view to solve the political impasse resulting from the serious irregularities that stained the last elections, to which must be added the dramatic consequences of the "Zero tolerance" policy, dissatisfaction rise and is voiced openly.
Throughout the country, radio stations broadcast the opinions, interventions, open discussions where the government is more and more criticized and summoned to speak-up on the issues that spread exasperation among the population. In the meantime, international Pressure is strengthened on President Aristide to make fulfill the eight points contained in his letter to President Clinton.
On a background of crucial problems of daily survival: 56% of the population is underfed, the local currency is constantly depreciated, prices on are on the rise, generalized insecurity in the populated section, the aborted re-opening of schools for a large number of children, issues that contributed to enhancing the seriousness of the crisis are mainly: impunity, the consequences of the "Zero tolerance" policy, as well as intimidation and the obvious waste of the country's resources and corruption.
------------------ IMPUNITY, symbolized by the clamping of the Jean Dominique murder investigation.
In spite of the numerous protests addressed directly to President Aristide, by both, groups of civil society and by international organizations, no progress has been registered in the attempts to bring the murderers of Jean Dominique and Jean-Claude Louissaint to Justice.
The investigation launched by Judge Claudy Gassant stands impeded. The lynching of Padel Rénélus , a suspect in the assassination of Jean Dominique, in Léogâne on November 9, while he was in police custody, provokes a new wave of indignation. As RSF reporter, Robert Ménard's declarations, calling the Police and Justice officers "gutter-snipe", and threatening to include of the Chief of State on the list of "Predators of the freedom of the Press" are largely divulged.
At the same time kidnappings occur one after the other, without any reaction from the law enforcement authorities. Low-income neighborhoods are not exempted, as armed "local warlords" persecute and ransom the population pitilessly. "In total impunity, massacres are perpetrated. The needy, the mass of poor, of the voiceless are being bled". (Le Devoir, editorial of December 11th,1001).
In Cité Soleil and La Saline, the population revolts against the impunity which their persecutors enjoy, and more particularly Roland Camille, a.k.a. as Ronal Kadav, against whom a warrant for arrest has been issued since September 10th, 2001 for the assassination of a man named Jean Fritzner. For days, these gigantic shantytowns are the scenes of violent confrontations. The outcome is weary, numerous dead, many hurt, about one thousand homes burned down (AP Nov. 3, 2001).
------------------ ZERO TOLERANCE AND INTIMIDATION
Since President Aristide's declaration of June 20, 2001, on the occasion of a visit to the Administrative Offices of the Police and calling for the enforcement of the "Zero tolerance" policy, the most murderous acts of violence were perpetrated, either directly by policemen, or by groups of civilians, in most cases in association with local authorities. Not counting those, which did not receive much echo in the Press, an estimated 40 summary executions were conducted during the past few months in the Capital and in the provinces. In the sole locality of Cabaret, 15 persons were victims of the "Zero tolerance" policy.
In an overwhelming testimony published in Le Monde (12/11/01), a policeman declares: "Ever since the launching of the "Zero tolerance" policy by President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, I have been living a nightmare*." In two months' time, he declares having witnessed the summary and clandestine execution of over fifty individuals; "these operations must not leave any trace*".
It is from the willful intimidation and enforcement of the "Zero tolerance" policy that one must examine the measure used by APENA (penitentiary authorities) in managing the protest that occurred at the National penitentiary on the night of November 15 to 16, 2001. The humiliating display of prisoners to the representatives of the Press, which is evocative of the treatment inflicted upon slaves during the centuries of slave trade, made gorges rise and raised general protest among the population. The now famous "Enough is enough!" cry of former Prime Minister Smarck Michel resounded both within the country and in the Diaspora as the expression of nationwide indignation.
During these last months, as a reaction to the rising criticism and protest, the government, either directly through its official spokesmen, or through leaders of so-called grass-root organizations, makes more and more frequently use of verbal or physical intimidation methods.
A negative campaign has been intensifying against journalists who are qualified as "unprofessional." As manifestations of dissatisfaction amplify and tension increases between the Laval powers and the opposition, attacks and threats against journalists multiply. (Le Monde, 12/10.01). Le Nouvelliste's last edition of the year titles : "2001 : The year of all woes for the Press".
The atrocious death of journalist Brignol Lindor on December 3rd, 2001 in Petit-Goâve, pursuant to the call by Adjunct Mayor Dumay Bony, asking the enforcement of the "Zero tolerance" policy to punish a member of the Press guilty of animating radio broadcasts deemed too critical of the government, tragically illustrates the ravages caused by that policy and raises the indignation in all sectors of society. Terror reigns in the city of Petit-Goâve. At Brignol Lindor's funeral, the police intervened violently.
As second targets of this intimidation policy come political parties, their militants and spokesmen.. All attempts to make meetings, gatherings, and marches are systematically and violently interrupted or disbanded. A few examples illustrate the situation that prevails during the year 2001:
- Port-au-Prince, March 20, 2001: A group of men, armed with guns and incendiary bottles, attack the headquarters of Convergence Démocratique, howling: "It's not Gerard Gourgues who can stop us from burning down Convergence*"
- Hinche, March 21st, 2001: "Mouvement Paysan Papaye" (MPP) organizes a pacific march of Papaye in Hinche. Early in the morning, the city is invested by armed men driven by Mayor Déra Simon. Vehicles that were coming from neighboring communes to take part in the march were prevented from entering town, and their passengers beaten. The organizers were force to cancel the march.merou
- Cayes, March 31, 2001: A day of reflection organized upon initiative of Convergence Démocratique in the promises of a night-club had to be suspended without prior notice A small group of about fifteen men, throwing rocks, attacked the premises were the meeting was being held, while threatening the burn down the place if the meeting was not immediately closed. The owner had to ask the participants to leave the premises.
- Cayes, May 21: A meeting is called at Saint Louis Hall by Convergence Démocratique on the occasion of the first anniversary of the events of May 21, 2000. Before the time scheduled for the meting, barricades of burning tires and gunshots forced the cancellation of the meeting.
- Marigot, November 18: The city's mayor, accompanied by two civilians armed with UZIs, members of the escort of Senator Prince Sonson Pierre, a Senator of the Lavalas party for Jacmel, stepped into a meeting held inside a building by Edgar Leblanc, a former Senator and former President of the National Assembly. Pursuant to Leblanc's refusal to obey the command to close the meeting, his car is riddled with bullets.
- Plaisance, November 25: A number of marchers of Convergence are arrested by the police. One of these marchers, Senèque, is beaten and dies at the precinct on November 28, 2001.
- Saint-Marc, November 29, 2001. Gunshots are fired against a march organized by Convergence. One of the marches, Samuel Augustin is killed. Another, Oscar Pierre, dies two weeks later, as a result of his wounds.
- Cap-Haitien, December 15, 2001: On December 14, three days before to the next Monday's "Coup", a day of reflection organized by youths of "Initiative Citoyenne" at the Law School in Cap-Haitien, with the participation of Micha Gaillard, is violently interrupted by screams, chairs turned over, projectiles launched by a group of about fifteen men claming to belong to the Lavalas regime, thereby violating the University's premises. This intervention was organized by the city of Milot's mayor, Moise Jean Charles and by Lafanmi's spokesman M. Amos Zéphirin, Assistant Director of the Cap's Airport.
------------------ PILFERAGE OF THE COUNTRY'S RESOURCES - CORRUPTION
In its daily struggle to cope with the growing precarious living conditions, the population manifests more and more its dissatisfaction in the face of the deployment of the luxury surrounding the men at the Lavalas power. Harsh and persistent criticism is also exPressed towards public scandals, which taint the policy makers' probity and methods of operation.
Attention is called among other things, on the purchase, made according to unclear procedures, of three houses wit h an estimated value of 7 million dollars (U.S.)
- One villa for former President René Préval : 1.4 MM US$
- One house for the new Prime Minister Jean-Marie Chérestal: 2 MM US$
- One house for the Haitian Embassy in Rome: 3 MM US$.
On every radio station, the scandal of "sumptuary" expenses and doubtful procedures, more particularly at the Internal Revenue Bureau (Direction Generale des Impôts) as well as the theme of "lavalassian big eaters" (thugs, embezzles, thieves)" is discussed more and more openly.
On Saturday December 8th, in an interview that lasted for two hours, on a very large audience program called "Ranmase" broadcast by Radio Caraïbes", Michel Soukar, a professor of History who animates a program on Haitian and Latin American History, speaks up directly to President Aristide on the issue on the origin and size of his fortune, and on the expenses incurred by the Presidency. It was like lightning had struck, and Mr. Soukar's "peremptory questioning" is quickly reproduced by hundreds and broadcast throughout the country and in the Haitian Diaspora.
It is in this context that on Sunday, December 16th, the anniversary date of the JB Aristide's election, the celebration of that event culminates in the afternoon with the inauguration of a new public square on Place Saint-Martin, a populous borough of Port-au-Prince.
On that occasion, the President, after having celebrated the "electoral victory" of the year 2000, although the subject of a deep political crisis which resulted in the ceasing of international aid since three years, addresses the assistance on the theme of "patriotism" and insists on the slogan that he makes the crowd repeat many times: "A lavalas is a patriot, A lavalassian is a patriot, a good lavalassian is a good patriot!".
At the beginning of the evening, tension is manifestly high; rumors are circulating and blocking is reported in certain neighborhoods of the Capital and in the provinces.
The day of December 17th, 2001
1.- The announcement of a coup
As soon as 3 a.m., on Monday the 17th of December, a "flash" is aired on radio stations (Radio Cara (Radio Caraïbes) spreading the news that the National Palace had been attacked by a commando
At about 6 a.m., Jacques Maurice, a member of the Press Bureau of the Presidency makes the first declarations: There is an attempt to overthrow the government ("coup d'État") and 80 heavily armed men have sneaked into the National Palace. From conversations heard on walky-talkies, stripped from policemen guarding the Palace, these men, speaking Spanish, English and Creole, reveal that they are headed by Guy Philippe, one of the police commissioners who had taken refuge in the Dominican Republic.
According to information collected by AP, Jacques Maurice also mentions a simultaneous attack against the National penitentiary and, still according to him, one of the intellectual authors of the Coup would be Lucien Gervais (a former military?) imprisoned at the National Penitentiary at the time of the revolt of the detainees and since then transferred to another detention center. Lucien Gervais is purported to have Dominican mercenaries in his pay, ready to act. During that intervention, Jacques Maurice specifies that President Aristide and his family are safe and at their Tabarre residence.
During these first hours, radio stations widely broadcast declarations, news, and first reactions. Journalist are posted at the Champs de Mars square, in front of the Palace and give a live account of the situation's evolution. Radio Haïti-Inter announces at 9:00 a.m. that "7 men are ambushed in the Palace's basements". Calls to violence and for the hunting down of those "responsible" for the coup are let loose by the spokesmen, (René Civil) of Lavalassian groups with shouts of "Cut their escape road up there, cut their escape road down there!"
A few hours later, Jean Auriel, the officer in charge of presidential security, answers the Press' questions and announces that the assailants have fled aboard two pick-up trucks. Elite troops of the Haitian National Police have regained control of the National Palace. The confrontations left one dead on the assailants' side , and two amongst the policemen.
Around noon, the Minister of Culture and Communication, Guy Paul, speaking on the State owned and operated radio "Radio Nationale" announces that the President had control of the Palace, thereby marking the end of the cop. He calls the crowds to calm and condemns the acts of violence recorded in the country.
In the afternoon, the National Police's spokesman, Jean Dady Siméon, in a Press release given at the National Palace, confirms the attempted "coup" by some 30 assailants, who were driven off, an attack which left 5 dead among which two policemen, one assailant, and two ordinary citizens. He also mentions that one of one of the assailants was captured in the area of Morne à Cabrits.
The President also speaks in a long Press conferred to condemn the coup. "The weapons that are used in these types of coups are the poison that kills democracy " , to reprove violence "We condemn acts of violence, on whatever side they are committed". Furthermore, he confirms that that there exists a connection between the events of July 28 and those that just occurred by affirming that: "The events of December 16-17, 2001 are connected with those that occurred on July 28 * We have proofs that show they are linkable, and the people must be praised for having known how to act consequently.
" When the events of July 28th occurred, there was more confusion which caused some people to doubt whether it was true or not. And we had stayed watching because of the confusing, and they were much more timid than this time. Yesterday, the people's manifestation was brightly expressed to defend democracy. Today, the peaceful manifestations show once again how it understands the role it must play, not to cross is arms and to wait and later have to go into hiding. But, we are going to stand up peacefully put-up peace barricades where it is necessary, when it is necessary, without violence, in respect of everyone's rights, in dialogue*"
(text in French and Creole)
Immediately after the Press conference, the Chief of Sate addresses a "Message of Peace". He starts by saluting the Police and all the citizens, who, with determination, have erected the Barricades of Peace and defeated the assassins of democracy.
"Honor and respect to you!"*. I have just toured Port-au-Prince, and I was able to see the numerous barricades of Peace, which you have erected to prevent the terrorist from fleeing, so that they no longer continue killing people. You have done so because you believe in your country, in democracy, because you are the sons of Desaslines, of Toussaint Louverture of our ancestors, you are brave! Peace's flag floats everywhere! Tonight, I ask that you organize a patriotic vigil, everywhere, to protect Peace."
(text in French and Creole)
"And, at this very time that we are speaking, we are proud to see the beautiful solidarity that exists between the people and the Police, and we encourage you to continue providing to the Police all information concerning these criminals who are attempting to flee so that they are not taken in, and have to speak* It is a coup that we were quickly able to control and it is to avoid that there are other attempts that we ask the population to mobilize peacefully to defend democracy peacefully."
(text in French and Creole).
"We remain united in hunting down with the Law in our hands, under the banner of Peace, all terrorist criminals who wanted to force us into hiding"
(text in French and Creole)
2- THE FACTS: The attacks against the Press, political parties, political leaders and cultural Centers
>From the various declarations made by the representatives of the Presidency, groups of partisans of Lafanmi Lavalas are organizing themselves in Port-au-Prince and in the provincial cities, attacking, pillaging and burning down the offices of political parties as well as the homes of their leaders. Radio stations are invested and threatened to be destroyed, journalists are violently taken to account, and some only make it by the skin of their teeth. Many persons fall victim to these acts of violence in the course of that day.
In the provinces
- The furniture of Pastor Milton Chery's residence, a member of OPL's coordination for the North, and a former candidate to senatorial elections is thrown out on the street and burned down.
- Eluscat Charles, a spokesman for OPL in the North, had his residence pillaged and burned up as well as a neighboring house.
- The Tanis's brothers' house, both of Convergence, as well as that of Jacques Etienne, a known critic of Lafanmi Lavalas, were also ransacked.
- A man by the name of Célius, close to FADH, was nearly lynched, were it not the intervention of a few passers-by, and for the confrontations, which occurred when the lavalas demonstrators tried to attack Gregory Joseph of Convergence.
- OPL's headquarters for the North were pillaged.
- The assailants also attempted to set Radio Maxima on fire, but had to abandon their project when faced with the riverains' reaction as they stood-up in defense of the radio station.
- The construction company managed by Gabriel Fortuné, a former Parliamentarian and departmental spokesperson for Convergence is pillaged and two tow trucks are burned-down.
- The home of Jean Robert Jeune, a member of OPL 's departmental Coordination committee is partially ransacked.
- A member of OPL's departmental Coordination committee, Wilfred Jean-Baptiste's home, is damaged and pillaged.
- A member of Convergence, Kessel Cilius' home, is pillaged.
- A member of Convergence, Pierre Richard's home, is pillaged.
- The residence of Pastor Luc Mésadieu, President of Mochrena, and member of the Directory of Convergence démocratique is burned down; 3 cars are burned down; two sympathizers of the Pastor are killed then burned.
- The residence of Pastor Sylvio Dieudonné, Vice President of Mochrena, is burned, as well as a neighboring house. A church and a school directed by the Pastor are also burned down.
- The furniture of Anouès Difficile's home, a member of Convergence démocratique, is burned down.
- Radio Metropole's correspondent for Artibonite, Duc Jonathan Joseph is missing.
GRANDE RIVIERE DU NORD
- OPL's headquarters are attacked and ransacked.
- The home of Milot Gousse, a Convergence démocratique's spokesman for the Southeast, was pelted with stones.
- Lensky Cassamajor, OPL representative, is sequestrated, beaten-up, and barely saved from being lynched.
- Centrale autonome des travailleurs haïtiens (CATH) 's office are burned-down ; numerous members of Convergence were forced into hiding.
Note that two state owned vehicles (National Education and Finances) were involved in these events.
- The home of Jean Jasmin, a teacher, member of the local OPL Coordination, is burned-down, as well as that of Déus Jean-François, MDN, a former Parliamentarian, member of Convergence, and communal officer. Confrontations occur between groups of lavalassians and partisans of Convergence. During that day, 15 houses were burned down and 5 were ransacked. The first reports indicate that : Yvon Jean, René Jean-Michel, Eligène Derosiers, Jean Wilio Manéus, Dieusibon Jean, Yves Rigaud, Denis Osias, Inès Coicou, Genisei Ejan, Diréus Antoine, Prosper Jeanty, Montigène Sincère, Serge Bouzile, Wilbert Pierre, would thus have totally or partially lost their homes.
- Gabriel Davidson, an OPL leader, as well as about fifteen other militants were forced into hiding.
In the Capital
a) The Press
Throughout that day, journalists in the Capital, reporters, radio stations are the object of threats, of acts of violence, that force many representatives of the Press to go into hiding, some to even seek asylum in embassies. According to Reporters Sans Frontières: "The systematic nature of aggressions shows that the demonstrators had been instructed to go for the Press".
Thony Bélizaire, a photographer for Agence France-Presse, Patrick Moussignac, Guérin Alexandre, Jean-Elie Moléus, respectively Director and reporters for Radio Caraïbes, and Guyler Delva, President of the Association of Haitian Journalists, as well as reporters for Telemax were violently taken to side by demonstrators kin of Fanmi Lavalas, armed with revolvers, machetes, and sticks. They forced these journalists to leave the premises under threat.
"We would have gunned you down if you were at Radio Caraïbes" declared the partisans of the government to Maxo Exil, of Haiti Press Network Agency, held at gunpoint.
Roger Damas, of Radio Ibo, was forced to surrender his Press identification card and cell phone to the demonstrators who assimilated Radio Ibo with the opposition.
Journalists of Radio Vision 2000, among which Pharès Duverné, Robert Philomé and Yves Clausel Alexis, while covering the events unfolding at the National Palace, were forced to yell "Long live Aristide, Long Live Lavalas", by members of grass-root organizations close to the government.
According to Arins Bellevue, Director of Radio Galaxie, their colleague, Abel Descollines had to go into hiding after having been threatened and informed that his name as well as those of other representatives of the Press was on a list of journalists to be executed. A journalist of RECAP, Gaston Janvier, also found himself in the same situation.
Reporters for Radio Metropole were aggressed and held at gunpoint by partisans of the government who were aboard vehicles belonging to state-owned enterprises. The glass windows of Radio Caraibes' bus were broken by pro-Lavalas demonstrators. Numerous radio stations' employees were threatened with death and the stations had to stop emitting that day: Radio Quisqueya, Radio Metropole, Radio Vision 2000, Radio Signal FM and Radio Caraïbes. The latter had to suspend its emissions for several days.
The professor-historian, radio program animator, Michel Soukar, was the object of repeated threats.
a). Political parties' headquarters
OPL's headquarters (Organisation du Peuple en Lutte), originally Organisation Politique Lavalas), founded in 1991, and headquarters of Convergence, were pillaged and burned-down. The encircling wall and entrance gate were brought down with a CNE (State owned public works equipment) bulldozer. The groups of assailants were also aboard CNE vehicles. OPL is member of the Internationale Socialiste and is coordinated by Gérard Pierre Charles.
NB. A neighboring house was also looted and burned downs..
- Konakom's headquarters (Comité National du Congrès des Mouvements Démocratiques), a member of Convergence and of Internationale Socialiste, coordinated by Victor Benoît, was looted and burned down.
- KID's headquarters (Confédération Unité Démocratique), a member of Convergence, coordinated by Evans Paul (a.k.a. as Konpè Plim) was ransacked and burned down.
N.B. It is the third time that KID's headquarters are devastated: in 1991, two months before the coup and in April 2000.
- ALAH's headquarters, (Alliance for the freedom of Haiti) a member of Convergence, who are housed the law firm of Attorney Reynold Georges, its coordinator, were also burned down.
b.- The family homes of the Convergence leaders
- The residential home of Professor Victor Benoît, located in Bon Repos, on the northern outskirts of Port-au-Prince, was looted and burned down (see details in the testimony included hereinafter).
- The residential home of Gerard Pierre Charles, located in Morne Hercule in Petion-Ville, was looted. His private library was set on fire with a cocktail Molotov. The house was besieged and at the end of the morning by members of CIMO corps and armed civilians aboard CNE vehicles.
- In both cases, government officials were recognized, and vehicles were identified. (See testimony hereinafter.)
c), Cultural Centers
- CRESFED, a Training, Research and Documentation center, a member of the Human Rights Platform, directed by Suzy Castor, a University professor, a historian by training, founded in 1986, was attacked, burned up and looted. (see testimony hereinafter).
- The offices of Caisse de Coopération Française, which presently houses the French Institute's computer school (during the time of this Institution's renovation works), a building adjacent to the Konakom offices, was looted.