Responding to Hate on Campus
APA Convention Symposium 2017

Michael R. Hulsizer, PhD, Webster University
Linda M. Woolf, PhD, Webster University
Sue Jacobs, PhD, Oklahoma State University
Evelyn Hunter, PhD, Auburn University,
Kathleen H. Dockett, EdD, LP, Discussant

Symposium Presentations

What Every Psychology Student Should Know About Hate, Michael R. Hulsizer & Linda M. Woolf:

Teaching and Using Difficult Dialogues in Psychology Classrooms during Times of Hate, Sue Jacobs:

Allyship In The Teaching And Mentoring Of Psychology Students During Times Of Hate, Evelyn A. Hunter:

Selected Websites and Links from the Presentations

The Alt-Right on Campus: What Students Need to Know (SPLC on Campus)

The Southern Poverty Law Center - Many resources on its website including the regularly published Teaching Tolerance, Hatewatch, and the Intelligence Report. - Companion website of the Southern Poverty Law Center for students and educators.

Hate Crimes on Campus: The Problem and Efforts to Confront It - U.S. Department of Justice.

Ten Ways to Fight Hate on Campus

Power and Privilege Race

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2004). Hate groups for dummies: How to build a successful hate group. Humanity and Society, 28, 40-62.

Difficult Dialogues Links:

Difficult Dialogues National Resource Center

Start Talking (2008)

Stop Talking

Harriger, K. J., & McMillan, J. J. (2007). Speaking of politics: Preparing college students for democratic citizenship through deliberative dialogue. Dayton, OH: Kettering Foundation.

Sue, D. W., Torino, G. C., Capodilupo, C. M., Rivero, D. P., & Lin, A. I. (2009). How White faculty perceive and react to difficult dialogues on race: Implications for education and training. The Counseling Psychologist, 37, 1090-1115.

Warren, L. Hot Moments in the classroom. Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning, Harvard University.

Allyship References

Barcus, C. G., & Crowley, S. L. (2012). Training Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in a White Man's Program: Don't Get Bucked Off!. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 40(2), 70-81. doi:10.1002/j.2161-1912.2012.00007.x

Davis, D. (2007). Access to Academe: The Importance of Mentoring to Black Students. Negro Educational Review, 58(3/4), 217-231.

Evans, N. J., & Broido, E. M. (2005). Encouraging the development of social justice attitudes and actions in heterosexual student. New Directions for Student Services, (110), 43-54.

Johnson, W., & Nelson, N. (1999). Mentor-Protégé Relationships in Graduate Training: Some Ethical Concerns. Ethics & Behavior, 9(3), 189.

Kumashiro, K. K. (2000). Toward a theory of anti-oppressive education. Review of Educational Research, 70, 25-53

Lechuga, V. (2011). Faculty-graduate student mentoring relationships: mentors' perceived roles and responsibilities. Higher Education, 62(6), 757-771. doi:10.1007/s10734-011-9416-0

Walker, J. A. (2006). A Reconceptualization of Mentoring in Counselor Education: Using a Relational Model to Promote Mutuality and Embrace Differences. Journal Of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 45(1), 60-69.

Selected Readings

Anti-Defamation League (2002). Racist groups using computer gaming to promote violence against Blacks, Latinos and Jews. Retrieved from

Anti-Defamation League. (2017). Education and Resources. Retrieved from

Barkun, M. (1996). Religion and the racist right: The origins of the Christian Identity movement. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Blazak, R. (2001). White boys to terrorist men: Target recruitment of Nazi skinheads. American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 982-1000.

Blee, K. M. (2003). Inside organized racism: Women in the hate movement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Borgeson, K., & Valeri, R. (2004). Faces of hate. Journal of Applied Sociology, 21 (2), 99-111.

Chakraborti, N., & Garland, J. (2009). Hate crime: Impact, causes and responses. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Chau, M., & Xu, J. (2007). Mining communities and their relationships in blogs: A study of online hate groups. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 65 , 57-70.

Christie, D. J. (2006). 9/11 aftershocks: Creating conditions ripe for hate crimes. In P. Kimmel & C. Stout (Eds.), Collateral damage: The psychological consequences of America’s war on terrorism (pp. 19-44). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Dobratz, B. A., & Shanks-Meile, S. (2000). The White separatist movement in the United States: "White power, White pride!". Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.

Dray, P. (2002). At the hands of persons unknown: The lynching of Black America. New York: Random House.

Etter, G., McElreath, D., & Quarles, C. (2005). The Ku Klux Klan: Evolution towards revolution. Journal of Gang Research, 12 (3), 1-16.

Ferber, A. L. (1998). White man falling: Race, gender and white supremacy. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Flint, C. (2003). Spaces of hate: Geographies of discrimination and intolerance. New York: Routledge.

Gerstenfeld, P. B. (2003). Hate crimes: Causes, controls, and controversies. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Gerstenfeld, P., Grant, D., & Chiang, C. (2003). Hate online: A content analysis of extremist Internet sites. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy (ASAP), 3 , 29-44.

Goodrick-Clark, N. (2003). Black sun: Aryan cults, esoteric Nazism and the politics of identity. New York: New York University Press.

Hicks, W. (2004). Skinheads: A Three Nation Comparison. Journal of Gang Research, 11 (2), 51-74.

Hoffman, B. (2006). Inside terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press.

Kelly, R. J., & Maghan, J. (1998). Hate crimes: The global politics of polarization. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Koenig, T., & Rustad, M. (2007). 'Hate torts' to fight hate crimes: Punishing the organizational roots of evil. American Behavioral Scientist, 51, 302-318.

Lanning, R. (2005). The marginal is on the edge of the mainstream: An approach to teaching about hate propaganda. Radical Pedagogy, 6 (2), Retrieved from

Lee, E., & Leets, L. (2002). Persuasive storytelling by hate groups online: Examining its effects on adolescents. American Behavioral Scientist, 45, 927-957.

Levin, B. (2001). History as a weapon: How extremists deny the Holocaust in North America. American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 1001-1031.

Levin, B. (2002). Cyberhate: A legal and historical analysis of extremists' use of computer networks in America. American Behavioral Scientist, 45, 958-988.

Levin, J., (2006). The violence of hate: Confronting racism, anti-Semitism, and other forms of bigotry. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Levin, J., & McDevitt, J. (2002). Hate crimes revisited: America's war on those who are different. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Levitas, D. (2002). The terrorist next door: The militia movement and the radical right. New York: Thomas Dunne Books.

McCurrie, T. (1998). White racist extremist gang members: A behavioral profile. Journal of Gang Research, 5 (2), 51-60.

McVeigh, R., & Sikkink, D. (2005). Organized racism and the stranger. Sociological Forum, 20, 497-522.

Perry, B. (2001). In the name of hate: Understanding hate crimes. New York: Routledge.

Perry, B. (Ed.). (2003). Hate and bias crime: A reader. New York: Routledge.

Pyszczynski, T., Solomon, S., & Greenberg, J. (2002). In the wake of 9/11: The psychology of terror. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Reich, W., & Laqueur, W. (Eds.). (1998) Origins of terrorism: Psychologies, ideologies, theologies, states of mind. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.

Schafer, J., & Navarro, J. (2006). The seven-stage hate model: The psychopathology of hate groups. Cultic Studies Review, 5 (1), 73-86.

Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.). (2005). The psychology of hate. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Sternberg, R. J., & Sternberg, K. (2008). The nature of hate. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Swain, C. M., & Nieli, R. (2003). Contemporary voices of White nationalism in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Tsfati, Y., & Weimann, G. (2002). Terror on the Internet. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 25, 317-332.

Turpin-Petrosino, C. (2002). Hateful sirens. . . Who hears their song?: An examination of student attitudes toward hate groups and affiliation potential. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 281-301.

Turpin-Petrosino, C. (2010). Understanding hate crimes: Acts, motives, offenders, victims, and justice. New York: Routledge.

Valeri, R., & Borgeson, K. (2005). Identifying the face of hate. Journal of Applied Sociology, 22 (1), 91-104.

Waltman, M., & Haas, J. (2007). Advertising hate on the Internet. In D. W. Schumann & E. Thorson (Eds.), Internet advertising theory and research (pp. 397-426). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Weatherby, G., & Scoggins, B. (2005). A content analysis of persuasion techniques used on White Supremacist Websites. Journal of Hate Studies, 4 (1), 9-31.

Worchel, S. (1999). Written in blood: Ethnic identity and the struggle for human harmony. New York: Worth.

Linda M. Woolf's Homepage