Psychosocial Perspectives on Terrorism Readings and Resources

Linda M. Woolf, Ph.D., Webster University

Main web page:
Peace and Conflict Page:
Holocaust and Genocide Studies Pages
Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict, and Violence - includes numerous resources particularly related to the issue of torture

Suggested Readings and Resources:

Ahern, J., Galea, S., Resnick, H., Kilpatrick, D., Bucuvalas, M. Gold, J., & Vlahov, D. (2002). Television images and psychological symptoms after the September 11 terrorist attacks. Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes, 65, 289-300.

Ajdukovic, D. (Ed.). (1997). Trauma recovery training: Lessons learned. Zagreb, Croatia: Society for Psychological Assistance.

Atran, S. (2003). Genesis of suicide terrorism. Science, 299, 1534-1539.

Blazak, R. (2001). White boys to terrorist men: Target recruitment of Nazi skinheads. American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 982-1000.

Blee, K. M. (2003). Inside organized racism: Women in the hate movement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Blumberg, H. H. (2002). Understanding and dealing with terrorism: A classification of some contributions from the behavioral and social sciences. Peace & Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 8, 3-16.

Bourne, L. E., Healy, A. F., & Beer, F. A. (2003). Military conflict and terrorism: General psychology informs international relations.Review of General Psychology, 7, 189-202.

Byron, K., & Peterson, S. (2002). The impact of a large-scale traumatic event on individual and organizational outcomes: Exploring employee and company reactions to September 11, 2001. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 895-910.

Chen, H., Chung, H., Chen, T., Fang, L., & Chen, J. (2003). The emotional distress in a community after the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. Community Mental Health Journal, 39, 157-165.

Chirot, D., & Seligman, M. E. (Eds.). (2001). Ethnopolitical warfare: Causes, consequences, and possible solutions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Christie, D. J., Wagner, R. V., & Winter, D. D. (Eds.). (2001). Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Crenshaw, M. (2000). The psychology of terrorism: An agenda for the 21st century. Political Psychology, 21, 405-420.

DeLisi, L., Maurizio, A., Yost, M., Papparozzi, C., Fulchino, C., Katz, C. L., Altesman, J., Biel, M., Lee, J., & Stevens, P. (2003). A survey of New Yorkers after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 780-783.

Dray, P. (2002). At the hands of persons unknown: The lynching of Black America. New York: Random House.

Dunkel, C. (2002). Terror management theory and identity: The effect of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on anxiety and identity change. Identity, 2, 281-301.

Durodie, B., Wessely, S. (2002). Resilience or panic? The public and terrorist attack. Lancet, 360, 1901-1902.

Fisher, R., Schneider, A. K., Borgwardt, E., & Ganson, B. (1997). Coping with international conflict: A systematic approach to influence in international negotiation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Franklin, C. L., Young, D., & Zimmerman, M. (2002). Psychiatric patients' vulnerability in the wake of the September 11th terrorist attacks. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 190, 833-838.

Hart, R. P., Jarvis, S. E., & Lim, E. T. (2002). The American people in crisis: A content analysis. Political Psychology, 23, 417-437.

Hoffman, B. (1999). Inside Terrorism New York: Columbia University Press.

Huddy, L., Feldman, S., Capelos, T., & Provost, C. (2002). The consequences of terrorism: Disentangling the effects of personal and national threat. Political Psychology, 23, 485-509.

Jones, L. (1998). The question of political neutrality when doing psychosocial work with survivors of political violence. International Review of Psychiatry, 10, 239- 247.

Kegley, C. W. (Ed.). (2003). The new global terrorism: Characteristics, causes, and controls. Upper Saddle Creek, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Keinan, G., Sadeh, A., & Rosen, S. (2003). Attitudes and reactions to media coverage of terrorist acts. Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 149-165.

Kelly, R. J., & Maghan, J. (1998). Hate crimes: The global politics of polarization. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Kleber, R. J., Figley, C. R., & Gersons, B. P. R. (Eds.). (1995). Beyond trauma: Cultural and societal dynamics. New York: Plenum Press.

Kressel, N. (1996). Mass hate: The global rise of genocide and terror. New York: Plenum Press.

La Greca, A., Sivlerman, W. K., Vernberg, E. M., & Roberts, M. C. (Eds.). (2002). Helping children cope with disasters and terrorism. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Langholtz, H. J. (Ed.). (1998). The psychology of peacekeeping. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Lerner, J. S., Gonzalez, R. M., Small, D. A., & Fischhoff, B. (2003). Effects of fear and anger on perceived risks of terrorism: A national field experiment. Psychological Science, 14, 144-150.

Levin, B. (2002). Cyberhate: A legal and historical analysis of extremists' use of computer networks in America. American Behavioral Scientist, 45, 958-988.

Levin, J., (2002). The violence of hate: Confronting racism, anti-Semitism, and other forms of bigotry. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Levin, J., & McDevitt, J. (2002). Hate crimes revisited: America's war on those who are different. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Levitas, D. (2002). The terrorist next door: The militia movement and the radical right. New York: Thomas Dunne Books.

Macias, J. (2002). The tragedy of terrorism: Perspective, reflection, and action in the aftermath. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 33, 280-282.

Maniscalco, P. M., & Christen, H. T. (2001). Understanding Terrorism and Managing the Consequences. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Miller, L. (2002). Psychological interventions for terroristic trauma: Symptoms, syndromes, and treatment strategies. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 39, 283-296.

Moghaddam, F. M., & Marsella, A. J. (Eds.). (2004). Understanding terrorism: Psychosocial roots, consequences, and interventions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Norwood, A. E., Holloway, H. C., & Ursano, R. J. (2001). Psychological effects of biological warfare. Military Medicine, 166(12,Suppl 2), 27-28.

Pantin, H. M., Schwartz, S. J., Prado, G., Feaster, D. J., & Szapocznik, J. (2003). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in Hispanic immigrants after the September 11th attacks: Severity and relationship to previous traumatic exposure. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25, 56-72.

Pedahzur, A., Perliger, A., & Weinberg, L. (2003). Altruism and fatalism: The characteristics of Palestinian suicide terrorists. Deviant Behavior, 24, 405-423.

Pyszczynski, T., Solomon, S., & Greenberg, J. (2002). In the wake of 9/11: The psychology of terror. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Reich, W., & Laqueur, W. (Eds.). (1998) Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.

Salerno, J. A., & Nagy, C. (2002). Terrorism and aging. Journals of Gerontology: Series A: Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences, 57A, M552-M554.

Schildkraut, D. (2002). The more things change...American identity and mass and elite responses to 9/11. Political Psychology, 23, 511-535.

Schulman, E. (2002). Combating terrorism: An immodest proposal. Psychology & Education: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 39, 43-45.

Schuster, M. A., Stein, B. D., Jaycox, L. H., Collins, R. L., Marshall, G. N., Elliott, M. N., Zhou, A. J., Kanouse, D. E., Morrison, J. L., & Berry. S. H. (2001). A national survey of stress reactions after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. New England Journal of Medicine, 345, 1507-1512.

Silver, R. C., Holman, E. A., McIntosh, D. N., Poulin, M., & Gil-Rivas, V. (2002). Nationwide longitudinal study of psychological responses to September 11. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 1235-1244.

Simonsen, C. E., & Spindlove, J. R. (2000). Terrorism today: The past, the players, the future. Upper Saddle Creek, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Stout, C. (Ed.). (2002). The psychology of terrorism. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Tsfati, Y., & Weimann, G. (2002). Terror on the Internet. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 25, 317-332.

Ursano, R. J., McCaughey, B. G., & Fullerton, C. S. (Eds.). (1994). Individual and community responses to trauma and disaster: The structure of human chaos. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Wagner, R. V. (Ed). (2002). Peace and Conflict's first response to September 11 [Special Issue]. Peace & Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 8(1).

Whitaker, D. J. (2001). The Terrorism Reader. New York: Routledge.

White, J. R. (2002). Terrorism: An introduction: 2002 update. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Wessely, S., Hyams, K. C., & Bartholomew, R. (2001). Psychological implications of chemical and biological weapons. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 323, 878-879.

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2002/2003). Intra- and inter- religious hate and violence: A psychosocial model. Journal of Hate Studies, 2, 5-26.

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2004). Hate groups for dummies: How to build a successful hate group. Humanity and Society, 28, 40-62.

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2005). Psychosocial roots of genocide: Risk, prevention, and intervention, Journal of Genocide Research, 7, 101-128.

Zinner, E. S., & Williams, M. B. (Eds.). (1999). When a community weeps: Case studies in group survivorship. Philadelphia, PA, US: Brunner/Mazel.

Office of Teaching Resources in Psychology Documents

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2004). OTRP Curriculum Resource I: Psychology of Peace and Mass violence -- Genocide, Torture, and Human Rights: Informational Resources (2004)

This 27-page document contains two annotated bibliographies of materials on genocide, torture, and human rights issues written from a psychosocial perspective. The first bibliography includes major journal articles, book chapters, books, and Internet resources on these issues organized by topic. The second bibliography is comprised of reference materials for background information and further study. In addition, there is an annotated list of relevant journals. Available for free download (PDF format)

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2004). OTRP Curriculum Resource II: Psychology of Peace and Mass Violence -- War, Ethnopolitical Conflict, and Terrorism: Informational Resources (2004)

This 30-page document contains an annotated bibliography of materials on war, ethnopolitical conflict, terrorism, and peace issues written from a psychosocial perspective. The bibliography includes major journal articles, book chapters, books, and Internet resources on these issues organized by topic. In addition, there is an annotated list of relevant journals. Available for free download (PDF format)

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2004). OTRP Curriculum Resource III: Psychology of Peace and Mass Violence: Instructional Resources (2004)

This 33-page document consists of resource materials for developing whole courses and lectures on mass violence and peace. For incorporating specific topics into existing courses, lecture suggestions and selected references are given. For developing and revising whole courses, sample syllabi are provided. In addition, lists of relevant videotapes, Internet sites/listservs, and professional organizations are included. Available for free download (PDF format)

Web Sites: From the National Center for PTSD - Disaster Mental Health: Dealing with the Aftereffects of Terrorism -

From U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Department Of Social Work Disaster Mental Health Services - A Guidebook for Clinicians and Administrators -

Link page -

For individuals dealing with children and their responses to terrorism, Judith A. Myers-Walls has put together a web site with information developed for this event. Go to

National Association of School Psychology: Coping with National Tragedy

Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution: Helping Children cope with Terrorism and other Trauma -

A Guide for Parents: Ten Tips for Talking with Children About Terrorism -

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