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9135: From Dictatorship to Democracy Comparative Chart (fwd)

From: MKarshan@aol.com

Office of the Foreign Press Liaison, National Palace, Haiti
Contact:  Michelle Karshan
Release Date:  September 26, 2001
Email:  mkarshan@aol.com
Telephone:  (011509) 228-2058

>From Dictatorship to Democracy Comparative Chart
September 30, 2001

"Building a state is a long process.  Let us begin this task with courage, 
together, with unity in diversity.  Those who have been excluded until now 
demand full participation.  We must never move forward without them, or 
against them.  They are present in everything we do.  Our people have courage 
and a unique genius for survival.  We must now move from survival to life."  
President Jean-Bertrand Aristide


   Literacy movement repressed
   85% illiteracy rate

Conditions Under Democracy
   Secretary of State for Literacy created 
   Literacy materials produced & widely distributed. National Campaign 
trained thousands of literacy workers, literacy classes nationwide
   55% illiteracy rate 


   No government support for small scale agriculture
   Rural exodus to the cities
   State-assisted repression by large landowners 
   Rice yield never more than 2.8 metric tons per hectare
   Eradication of Haiti's Creole pig valued at $600 million devastated rural 
economy. Unsuccessful pig replacement program
   Little public health and education services in rural areas
   Government sugar mill in Darbonne closed
   Agricultural production and exportation greatly reduced and strongly 
decapitilized during coup regime

Conditions Under Democracy
   National Institute of Agrarian Reform established 
   Redistributed 2.47 acres each to over 1,500 families for cultivation
   Repairs permitted irrigation of more than 3,000 hectares of land for 
farming by 7,100 farmers in the Artibonite Valley alone
   The Office for the Development of the Artibonite Valley & INARA provided 
tools, credit, technical advisors, fertilizers & heavy equipment to farmers 
(i.e. 100 tractors)
   Increased rice yield from between 3 to 5.5 tons per hectare
   Livestock distributed & animal vaccination program pursued
   400 kilometers of major & minor roads opened up previously inaccessible 
agricultural areas
   Sugar mill repaired & reopened
   Gourmet & fair trade coffee developed & marketed, much sold directly by 
peasant cooperatives.  Haiti a major exporter of mangoes to the U.S.
   30,000 fishermen assisted through technical training, 4 industrial boats 
for deep-sea fishing, construction of 100 motor boats for small fishermen & 
   Construction of 50 artificial lakes begun & supplied with millions of 
fish revitalizing fish farming industry


   Children exploited.  No government protections

Conditions Under Democracy
   Historic law in 2001 prohibits violence against children & provides for 
punishment against offenders
   Universal Schooling campaign to enroll all children in school.   
Additional 160,000 enrolled fall 2001
   Public information campaign against violence, humiliation and 
exploitation of all children, especially restaveks
   Convention on the Rights of the Child ratified (1994)
   Telephone hotline system receives complaints & intervenes
   National conference addressing all aspects of children's lives, 
responsive to plight of restaveks
   Juvenile court system and rehabilitation program.  Services for street 
   Daycare center for children of factory workers at Industrial Park 
   Scholarship fund for exceptionally talented youth
   Special fund to develop & reinforce artistic talents 


   Political climate halted promotion 

Conditions Under Democracy
   MUPANAH, the government museum, renovated
   National Library renovated
   Museum on monetary system & its history
   National & international exhibits & performances, national fairs, music 
festivals, television shows & contests
   Education & events on Haiti's history (i.e. Route de l'Esclave, Toussaint 
L'Ouverture Constitution of 1801)
   ONART opened display store for artists wares
   Historic monuments built & restored
   Special fund to assist artistic youth
   Art & handicrafts strengthened by government support


   Dictators and presidents for life, no free & fair elections
   No freedom of speech, expression or association.  Democracy supporters 
tortured & killed under coup regime
   Voters massacred at polls in 1987
   Persecution of progressive Catholic churches, anti-vodou campaign, 
parishioners massacred at St. Jean-Bosco
   No election campaigns or public discussions
   Power consolidated in capital, peasants had little voice in political life
   Most radio stations shut down during coup regime
   Destruction of popular participation & emerging structures of civil 

Conditions Under Democracy
   First democratically elected president (President Jean-Bertrand Aristide) 
peacefully transferred power to next democratically elected president 
(President Rene Preval) who became first president to serve his whole legal 
term - no more, no less
   Freedom to organize, debate, associate and expression guaranteed.  
Constitution in Creole widely distributed
   Since 1994 oversaw several rounds of democratic elections that included 
parliamentary and local representatives & two presidential elections.  The 
2000 elections ran 29,500 candidates for 7,500 seats and registered 4 million 
people to vote 
   Freedom of religion guaranteed
   Public debates, election debates, televised major trials, civic education
   Initiated decentralization process which produced local input in 
infrastructure projects 
   Number of radio & television stations expanded: 44 FM stations in 
Port-au-Prince, approx.100 radio stations outside of capital, 16 registered 
television stations in Port-au-Prince, and 35 registered television stations 
outside capital
   Popular organizations & civil society flourished


   Use of Haiti as drug transshipment point started under Duvalier, exploded 
under coup regime

Conditions Under Democracy
   Decrease in drug transshipping from 13% to 8% in 2000 according to U.S. 
State Department
   Legislation passed: Inter-American Convention Against Corruption, 
Anti-Money Laundering & Maritime Counter Narcotics Agreement with the U.S. 
   Set up Financial Intelligence Unit to combat money laundering. Banks 
already complying with new requirements to notify authorities of major cash 
   2001: 412.9 kilos of cocaine and 392.57 pounds of marijuana seized so 
far.  Since 1997: 4 tons of cocaine & 5 tons of marijuana seized, 2000 
drug-related arrests.  Participation on region-wide interdiction efforts. 
Collaboration with DEA on special missions such as recent "Operation 
Conquistador" and "Operation Hurricane."
   Civilian maritime police, anti-drug unit & border patrol


   Three years of coup regime left country depleted: Assembly industries 
were decimated causing loss of 60,000 jobs, global deficit of central 
administration worsened as state revenues dropped from 8% of the GDP in 1991 
to 3% in 1994.  Real GDP fell 30% and per capita GDP dropped from $320 to $260
   Mass transfer of capital.  The coup regime's top officials regularly 
embezzled state funds and transferred these to their personal foreign bank 
accounts, control of monopolies, import privileges and special access to 
foreign exchange
   Fiscal impunity guaranteed by army.  Less than 4% of personal income tax 
collected during coup regime
   Public enterprises neglected & during coup regime taxes not properly 
collected.  Monies collected through customs, general sales tax, income tax, 
and taxes on goods and services fell from $86.6 million in 1991 to $52.9 
million in 1994.  The Haitian gourde declined against the U.S. dollar.  The 
coup regime closed the cement company and flour mill and depended upon the 
water supply company to provide extra income.  The electricity company 
steadily lost money and the Port Administration was inconsistent.  Due to 
overall looting and embezzlement, the cement and flour mills were closed
   Poor people generally had no access to banks or credit.  Handful of 
private banks outside Port-au-Prince & Cap Haitian

Conditions Under Democracy
   Net private transfers from Haitians abroad grew rapidly by 12% in fiscal 
year 2000 overtaking export earnings for first time. Higher private transfers 
contributed to narrowing in current account deficit of balance of payments 
(excluding public grants) from US $316 million for fiscal year 1991 to US 
$294 million in 2000
   Foreign & national investment advanced i.e. foreign partnerships & 
franchises (MCI, Dominos) & construction boom (shopping malls, apartment 
buildings, gas stations, convenience stores, department stores, expansion of 
major tourist/business hotels & the Hilton hotel plan to construct 165-bed 
hotel at airport
   Public Administration:  In 1991 Aristide/Preval government roots out 
state corruption.  In first three months the state-owned cement factory went 
from a 4.5 million gourde loss to a 100,000 gourde net profit.  The flour 
mill went from a 2.76 million gourde loss to a 2.1 million gourde profit
   After severe negative growth during coup regime, economy slowly rebounded 
to a positive 4.5% real growth rate immediately after the return to 
democracy. Since then, record collection of taxes and port fees have been 
made.  Income & profit taxes rose by 14 % while customs collections rose by 
   National & international competition challenges traditional monopoly 
   Customs code revised in 1995
   Tax collection increased immediately from 77 million gourdes for the 3 
months proceeding December 1990 election of President Aristide to 100 million 
gourdes for the month of May 1991 alone. Customs receipts jumped from 16.4 
million gourdes in February 1991 to 25.8 million the following May 1991.  In 
1991 Aristide's government's success in collecting tax and custom revenues 
gained the commitments of $511 million dollars in international aid 
   Modernization/Privatization:  Public debate and education campaign. 
Feasibility studies prepared for sale of public enterprises.  Legislation 
enacted to modernize & privatize public enterprises. The cement and flour 
mills sold in a public/private partnership.  Other public/private efforts 
include two major U.S. telecommunications companies (Western Wireless/MCI) 
involved in ownership of cellular & fixed telephone services & the port & 
airport project of St. Louis de Sud
   Creation of community restaurants and community stores providing low cost 
   Private banks outside of Port-au-Prince grew to 29 in last 5 years 
opening up the poor's access to banking & micro-credit


   Discriminated against children from the countryside.  Rural education was 
under Ministry of Agriculture
   No assistance with uniforms, textbooks, transportation or tuition

Conditions Under Democracy
   Government Universal Schooling program seeks to enroll every child in 
school & build a school in each of Haiti's 565 rural sections.  Provided for 
160,000 more children to enter school fall 2001
   20.8% of national budget (2001-2006) devoted to education
   Hot lunches served to 700,000 children per day
   Textbooks subsidized by 55%, 150,000 free school uniforms for fall 2001, 
first school bus system in capital and rural areas, 90,000 school 
scholarships in 1995, school crossing guards
   200 primary & secondary schools constructed & renovated
   Doubled number of secondary schools in 1994 through construction & 
   Teachers' salaries increased
   Primary education standardized


   Incinerator ash dumped in Haiti during military regime for individual 
   Unregulated destruction of mountains for commercial use
   Ecological devastation, rapid deforestation & soil erosion
   Sanitation system progressively deteriorated with political climate

Conditions Under Democracy
   Ministry for the Environment created
   Succeeded in getting incinerator ash removed from Haiti after 14 year 
   Convention on Desertification ratified (1996)
   Reforestation programs & alternatives to charcoal pilot projects
   Convention on Biological Diversity ratified (1996)
   National Parks protected & park rangers trained
   Garbage system & collection upgraded.  Training program for environmental 
   Increased regulations on emissions and overloaded trucks


   No government programs for women's rights or gender equity
   Absence of women in government posts
   Historic neglect of girls' education
   Discriminatory legislation against women

Conditions Under Democracy
   Ministry of Women's Affairs & Rights created
   Inter-American Convention for Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of 
Violence Against Women ratified (1996)
   Record number of women elected to public office including 1/3 of the 
   Women appointed to high posts: Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, Minister of Finance, director of a national bank and Departmental 
Police Director
   Proposed legislation to strengthen rape laws, decriminalize abortion, 
include women domestic workers in Labor Code & equalize laws on adultery
   Central Office of Equipment trained women to operate heavy equipment for 
public works projects.  Half of their 525 employees are women
   Midwife school to open at State University Hospital
   Hospital personnel & police started receiving training in handling of 
rape cases


   Healthcare not government priority 
   Vaccination rates dropped from 40% to 24% during coup regime leading to 
pediatric measles epidemic in 1993
   1 doctor to 10,000 people with most doctors concentrated in capital. 
Almost all medical care limited to large cities

Conditions Under Democracy
   13.7% of budget (2001-2006) devoted to healthcare
   2000 - 2001: Vaccination campaigns against polio (2 million doses) and 
Measles (600,000 doses)
   Increased number of doctors through partnership with foreign healthcare 
   400 Haitian students studying in medical school abroad & medical school 
to open at new university in Haiti.  Tuition free in exchange for public 
   Renovated and constructed more than 40 health clinics, hospitals, & 
dispensaries countrywide
   State University Hospital: Renovated labor & delivery/maternity section, 
built modern morgue, autopsy room, new emergency room & pharmacy, 
rehabilitated radiology department, put in a blood bank
   Midwifery school to open at State University Hospital 
   Free diagnosis & treatment of tuberculosis
   Purchasing pharmaceuticals at lower cost to provide Haiti's poor with 
access to medicine


   No comprehensive government policy on combating AIDS.  Sex tourism
   24-hour commercial blood banks
   AIDS exacerbated by political rapes & population displacement

Conditions Under Democracy
   Strategic plan addressing the 260,000 people living with the disease in 
Haiti (4.5% - 6% depending on region) 
   Objectives include reduction of STDs by 50%, reduction of mother to child 
transmission by 50% & increasing testing sites countrywide through aggressive 
education & prevention campaign, current trial vaccine program, limited 
anti-retroviral therapy
   Rise in male condom sales from 2 million in 1990 to 11.6 million in 2000, 
female condom sales doubled in last four years
   Traveling caravan of artists and speakers promoting prevention


   Impunity for human rights violators
   5,000 killed during coup regime, 300,000 forced into internal exile, 
100,000 took to the high seas, thousands beaten, raped or otherwise tortured
   Long tradition of discrimination against peasants
   State sponsored persecution of journalists

Conditions Under Democracy
   Office of Citizen Protection created 
   National Truth & Justice Commission created
   Use of peasant label on birth certificates eliminated 
   Chapultepec Declaration supporting press freedoms
   1996 UNESCO prize on human rights education awarded to Aristide
   Convention on the Rights of the Child ratified (1994)
   Inter-American Convention for Prevention, Punishment,  & Eradication of 
Violence Against Women ratified (1996)
   Law prohibiting violence against children (2001)


   Failed to keep pace with growing demand for services
   Infrastructure completely neglected during military regime and more so 
during coup regime
   Paramilitary terrorist group burned down more than 100 houses in Cite 
Soleil during coup regime

Conditions Under Democracy
   Bridges renovated, 319 kilometers of inter-urban roads & 78 kilometers of 
urban roads constructed or rehabilitated   Infrastructure generated 
construction boom & rise in property values
   Port-au-Prince international airport & access roadways renovated
   Croix des Bossales, Port-au-Prince's main market area, renovated through 
a $5 million sanitation program.  Public toilets constructed
   8 parks built or renovated including Place des Nations Unies, La 
Fountaine des Nymphes d'Ebene & Champ-de-Mars, which include first public 
playgrounds.  First major public beach opened 
   Thousands of miles of canals constructed, repaired, dredged
   Thousands of miles of drains repaired or constructed, dozens of hydraulic 
units repaired, rehabilitated 12 irrigation systems, riverbeds reinforced
   Jacmel:  Electrical plant provides 24-hour electricity, port & wharf 
renovated, paved road to beach area
   National Archives, National Library, & Sylvio Cator National Stadium 
   Extensive local public participation determined priority projects 
   Central Office of Equipment created to manage heavy equipment for public 
works' projects.  Currently has $40-45 million worth of equipment
   Built new housing for Cite Soleil arson victims


   CARICOM entry repeatedly rejected because of dictatorship status
   International isolation of coup regime

Conditions Under Democracy
   Accepted into CARICOM, integration process near completion
   Bilateral working group of Haitians and Dominicans on trade, migration, 
drug trafficking, agriculture, health, tourism
   Doubled number of countries with which Haiti has diplomatic relations 
   Signed treaty creating International Criminal Court


   Corrupt judicial system
   No prosecution of coup regime's brutal repressors
   Courtroom proceedings conducted almost exclusively in French, which was 
understood by only 20% of citizens

Conditions Under Democracy
   Professionalized judicial system, passed law on Judicial Reform, built 
and renovated 38 courthouses, 17 police stations, prisons, & a juvenile court
   National Truth & Justice Commission investigated coup regime atrocities 
through 10,000 interviews resulting in 5,450 reports filed, which represented 
8,650 victims & a total of 19,308 violations. Submitted comprehensive report
   Carrefour Feuilles trial in August 2000 successfully prosecuted police 
officers, including senior leadership, for executing civilians in a 1999 
   Raboteau trial successfully prosecuted 53 defendants, including coup 
regime's top military & paramilitary leadership, for a 1994 massacre 
   School for Magistrates
   Graduated more than 100 new judges & prosecutors
   Juvenile court system and rehabilitation program
   Raised judges' salaries
   Specialized police units, records control, scientific investigations, 
forensic medicine & new autopsy department at State University Hospital
   Legal proceedings in Creole


   Government contracted to profit from each Haitian sugarcane cutter 
working in the Dominican Republic
   Union organizers & labor activists persecuted
   No enforcement of labor rights

Conditions Under Democracy
   Secretary of State on Labor created 
   Raised daily minimum salary to 36 gourdes (1995)
   Law on reform of public administration (1991)
   Challenged exploitation of Haitian sugarcane cutters in the Dominican 
   Legislation on labor code to enforce rights proposed
   Workers' rights public information campaign
   Labor unions & collective bargaining respected
   Vocational training reinforced
   Labor court reinforced: Trained & equipped investigators
   Hospital for workers (OFATMA) renovated & services expanded


   President & army dictated to legislators
   Legislators not conforming jailed or killed
   Historically weak.  Rubber stamped Duvalier for life and the naming of 
his successor

Conditions Under Democracy
   Law on the reform of the Public Administration  (1991)
   Convention on the Rights of the Child (1994)
   Creation of Police Academy (1995)
   Law raising daily minimum salary to 36 gourdes (1995)
   Law establishing Institute for Agricultural Reform (1995)
   Law on Judicial Reform (1995)
   Law re-organizing Judiciary (1995)
   Inter-American Convention for Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of 
Violence Against Women (1996)
   Law on decentralization (1996)
   Convention on Biological Diversity (1996)
   Convention on Desertification (1996)
   Annexation of National Penitentiary Administration to the National Police 
   Law on Judicial Reform (1998)
   Ratification of 1997 Maritime Counter Narcotics Agreement with U.S. (2001)
   Anti-Money Laundering Law (2001)
   Law prohibiting violence against children (2001)


   Hundreds of thousands from both urban and rural areas fled Haiti as 
repression intensified under Duvalier
   During coup regime the Haitian military fingerprinted, criminalized, 
tortured and killed returning refugees who had fled from political 
persecution. Upwards of 100,000 took to the high seas.  300,000 forced into 
internal exile

Conditions Under Democracy
   National Office on Migration established 
   Ministry of Haitians Living Abroad created
   Rural areas reinforced with social services & infrastructure 
   Haitians abroad support democratic process 
   Resettled over 100,000 returned refugees
   Trained 1,000 refugees from Guantanamo as police officers and integrated 
them into new police
   Haitians abroad send upwards of $500 million in remittances annually
   Haitians abroad participate in Haiti's politics & economy with large 
investments & development of businesses


   Military run prisons, no professional training, easy escapes
   Brutality & torture routine
   Private prisons and torture chambers
   No separation of prisoners
   Prison records or files were shoddy or non-existent making it impossible 
for lawyers and human rights advocates to establish claims of illegal 

Conditions Under Democracy
   Civilian correctional system
   Systematic brutality & torture eliminated
   Prisons constructed & renovated including large structure inside National 
   Children and women separated from adult male prisoners.  Literacy 
training & classes in the women's prison
   Record keeping, meals, & infirmary upgraded 


   State sponsored terrorism by military & paramilitary groups (Tonton 
Macoute, section chiefs & FRAPH) & politically motivated killings
   Army of 7,000 consumed 45% of national budget
   Military fulfilled police functions despite constitutional requirement of 
civilian police
   Overwhelmingly brutal and corrupt with no accountability
   Political insecurity & 5 coups & attempts against the state from 1986 to 

Conditions Under Democracy
   Army demobilized & replaced with civilian police force 
   Set up interim police force while new police being trained.  Former 
soldiers who served in interim police, and not implicated in human rights 
violations funneled into new police.  Successfully moved all security forces 
under the Police
   National Police Academy created  & trained first civilian police force
   Inspector General Office created.  Investigates police misconduct
   Police posts in every municipality
   Civilian maritime police, anti-drug unit & border patrol
   Neighborhood watch groups


   Lost FIFA recognition during coup regime

Conditions Under Democracy
   Secretary of State of Sports & Youth created
   FIFA recognition regained
   Neighborhood sports programs created & equipped
   Duvalier ranch transformed into sports training center
   National stadium renovated, soccer fields constructed 


   State monopoly on telecommunications provided very limited service 
   Few lines in rural areas
   Only 36,000 telephone lines in capital in 1990
   No cellular services

Conditions Under Democracy
   State monopoly on communications eliminated through competition
   Teleco lines outside capital: 6,970 in 1990, 8,257 in 1994, and 23,580 in 
2001.  Teleco recently installed 2,000 lines in Port-de-Paix
   Teleco lines in capital:  46,029 lines in 1994, 72,052 in 2001 
   150 Teleco telephone centers in rural areas
   Three cell phone companies provide service to 95,000 subscribers in 
capital as well as other urban areas


   Tourism progressively deteriorated under coup regime

Conditions Under Democracy
   Ministry of Tourism created
   Jacmel:  Installed electrical plant which provides 24-hour electricity, 
renovated port & wharf, paved road to beaches outside
   Labadie area developed.  Receives two cruise ships per week generating 
funds which are shared between tourism efforts & local municipalities
   Renovated historic sites & monuments
   Renovation/creation of ports, airports, parks and playgrounds
   Secured commitment from Hilton hotel to build a 165-bed hotel at 
international airport in Port-au-Prince
   Secured commitment of two cruise ship lines to dock in Jacmel when town 
renovation is completed
   International promotion of tourism. Reintegrated Haiti in U.S. & European 
   Art & handicrafts supported by government 
   Tourism house opened on Champ-de-Mars & decorated airport
   Hotel and restaurant training school


   No cohesive sanitation or water plan or procedures
   Water delivery system originally built to serve 120,000 inadequate for 
growing capital

Conditions Under Democracy
   Oversight committee to coordinate work & water management policy created 
   Peligre Lake renovated and new generator installed to facilitate 
electricity services, agriculture & flood control
   Large water tower & 70 water sources built in Cite Soleil
   Port-au-Prince water system expanded with 6 new wells & construction & 
rehabilitation of reservoirs 
   49 cisterns and public water sources built in popular areas & maintained 
by local neighborhood water committees