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a885: Haiti : 2001 World Press Freedom Review (fwd)
From: Robert Benodin <email@example.com>
Haiti : 2001 World Press Freedom Review
By Charles Arthur
During a year marked by an increase in criminal and political violence,
there have been a growing number of reports of harassment and attacks on
journalists. The majority of these incidents were perpetrated by either the
police or supporters of the Lavalas Family government. A worrying tendency
for journalists to be seen as participants in a struggle for political power
came to a head at the end of the year with the gruesome murder of a radio
journalist by a pro-government mob.
In the view of many, the difficulties and dangers experienced by Haiti's
journalists have been exacerbated by the judicial authorities' failed
attempts to conclude the investigation into the April 2000 murder of the
country's best known journalist, Jean Dominique. A number of Lavalas Family
Party supporters have been implicated in the course of the murder inquiry,
but the fact that charges have still not yet been brought has encouraged a
climate of impunity from which journalists, and others, have suffered.
There were numerous incidents of abuses by police, of which the following
were the most serious:
On 30 January, Pierre Marcelin Lamarre, a correspondent for the local
community radio station Radio Pipirit, and for Radio Haiti Inter in the
capital, was severely beaten by police officers in the south-western town of
Anse d'Hainault. He was then detained in prison for eight days before being
released without being charged. The beating is believed to be connected with
the journalist's reporting of violent confrontations between supporters of
rival political parties.
On 9 August, Liberus Renald and Claude Francois, Radio Rotation FM
journalists in Belladares, were beaten and arrested by police after they
refused to hand over a recording that contained statements by former
soldiers who allegedly attacked police stations on 28 July.
12 October Jean Robert Delcine, a reporter at Radio Haiti Inter, was beaten
up by the
Cite Soleil police commissioner on 12 October while he was investigating the
alleged extra-judicial execution of a 16-year old youth.
On 25 November, Radio Kiskeya journalist Evrard Saint-Armand was assaulted
and taken to a Port-au-Prince police station by a plainclothes officer who
threatened him with a gun. Accused of being responsible for a murder he was
covering, but soon released, the journalist was beaten several times during
the ensuing interrogation.
20 April In a climate of increasing lawlessness, some radio stations were
robbed and had equipment stolen. The most serious case was the 20 April
attack on the relay transmitter site near Cite Soleil owned by Radio Lumiere
and Radio Vision Nouvelle. One security guard was hacked to death, and two
others were shot and wounded, when a crowd of some 300 people broke into the
compound and stole US$ 200,000 worth of equipment.
Throughout the year, serious abuses against journalists occurred as they
covered the unresolved political dispute over the legislative and
presidential elections in 2000.
On 9 January, two pro-Lavalas Family organisations held a press conference
in Port-au-Prince at which they denounced and threatened Liliane
Pierre-Paul, co-owner of Radio Kiskeya, and Max Chauvet, editor of Le
Nouvelliste newspaper. These two were specifically mentioned as appearing on
a list of alleged participants in the opposition coalition Democratic
plan to form an alternative government. Pierre-Paul was also criticised for
using the term "a contested parliament" when reporting on the legislative
assembly elected in 2000. (This complaint about bias in media reporting was
repeated by government supporters throughout the year.) Later the same day,
unidentified persons threw a gasoline-filled container into the courtyard of
Radio Kiskeya, but no fire ignited.
On 7 March, Obed Celine, a reporter for Radio Caraibes in Port-au-Prince,
was threatened by Rockefeller Maxi, a former Haitian army corporal, who
claimed that the station had underestimated the numbers participating in a
demonstration in favour of the Army's return. A few weeks earlier, when the
Democratic Convergence announced its parallel opposition government, the
coalition's leader had called for the Army to be reconstituted.
Starting on 9 June and continuing for several days, Roosevelt Benjamin,
director of information of Radio Signal FM, based in the Port-au-Prince
suburb of Petionville, received anonymous telephone calls threatening him
with violence. Benjamin believes that he was threatened for broadcasting his
belief that a recently launched political organisation, the Majority Civil
Society Movement, was dominated by relatives of Lavalas Family Party
In August, several journalists in Thiotte, in the southeast of the country,
received threats from local authorities and popular organisations close to
the government. One, Fedner Confident of Radio Sacre-Coeur, who is also
local correspondent for Port-au-Prince's Radio Ginen and Jacmel's Radio
Express Continental, received death threats after he denounced mismanagement
by the local government.
On 29 September, Jean Marie Mayard, Radio Metropole's correspondent in St.
Marc, was attacked and threatened by the pro-Lavalas Family Bale Rouze
organization as he covered President Jean-Bertrand Aristide's visit to
Gonaives. One of the attackers told him, "If you continue to spread news
that goes against the government, you are a dead man." The extent of
pressures imposed on journalists was further highlighted on 11 October when
the Gonaives Press Workers' Association announced that it was launching
legal action against a Democratic Convergence leader for suggesting that
local journalists had been bribed to report positively on President
On 17 November As more anti-government demonstrations were staged towards
the end of the
year, reports of attacks on journalists increased. On 17 November,
Franceline Leonard, Radio Metropole correspondent in Les Cayes, was
allegedly beaten up by Romain Hilaire, a leader of pro-government
organisation, as she reported on the launch of a government literacy
campaign. Hilaire was released after just 48 hours when a judge played down
the seriousness of the attack. On 29 November, during an opposition
demonstration in St. Marc, pro-government supporters again threatened to
kill Jean Marie Mayard because of alleged anti-government bias in his
reporting. On the same day, also in St. Marc, members of the Bale Wouze
organisation threatened to kill Ernst Ocean, Radio Vision 2000's local
correspondent, accusing him of working for the opposition Democratic
On 3 December The most serious incident occurred near the town of
Petit-Goave on 3 December when Radio Echo 2000 news director Brignol Lindor
was attacked by a pro-Lavalas Family crowd which stoned and then killed him
with machete blows. Petit-Goave had for some months been the scene of
violent confrontations between pro and anti-government gangs. Lindor's
colleagues claim that he had received death threats from local Lavalas
Family officials after inviting opposition leaders to speak on his radio
On the morning of 17 December, journalists covering an apparent coup attempt
at the Presidential Palace were threatened with violence by crowds that took
to the streets in support of the Lavalas government. As they attempted to
enter the Radio Vision 2000 building, three journalists were forced to shout
"Vive Aristide" by a group of armed demonstrators. In separate incidents,
stones were thrown at the Radio Caraibes offices, and at Radio Metropole and
Telemax TV journalists' vehicles. A number of journalists claimed to have
received threatening phone calls from a pro-government gang leader who is
implicated in several unsolved murders. Fearing for the safety of their
staff, Radio Caraibes suspended its transmissions, while a number of other
radio stations cut back on news broadcasts for several days.
President Aristide urged his supporters to "respect the rights of
journalists", but both the state-run Radio Nationale and the Aristide
Foundation's Radio Ti Moun aired commentaries justifying public hostility to
some media outfits because they supported the political opposition. Police
did not visit any radio stations to offer protection, and in the days that
followed, there were unconfirmed reports that as many as a dozen journalists
had sought refuge in foreign embassies and that some had left the country.
The judicial inquiry into the April 2000 murder of Radio Haiti Inter
director Jean Dominique and the station's guard, Jean-Claude Louissant,
continued to flounder in the face of obstruction and threats from elements
linked to a prime suspect, and Lavalas Family Party senator, Dany Toussaint.
The case has come to be regarded, both in Haiti and abroad, as a litmus test
government's willingness (and ability) to create a functioning judicial
process, and to bring lawless elements within the Lavalas Family Party under
On April 3, the anniversary of the murder, peasant groups and journalists'
associations held large demonstrations to demand justice for Jean Dominique.
A new pressure group, the Foundation to Echo the Voice of Jean Dominique,
was formed, and joined a growing chorus calling on the executive to move the
inquiry forward. President Aristide decreed April 3 Haiti's national press
day in honour of Jean Dominique. At a meeting with journalists, he renewed
his government's determination to fight for press freedom, and promised to
sign the Chapultepec declaration. However, only a few weeks later, Judge
Gassant told Reporters Without Borders that he was concerned for his
security and was prepared to resign unless the government reinforced his
On 8 June Throughout the year, Senator Toussaint, a former police chief and
possible successor to Aristide as Lavalas Family leader, refused the
investigating judge's repeated requests to answer questions relating to the
inquiry, citing his parliamentary immunity under article 115 of the Haitian
Constitution. On 8 June, Gassant submitted the inquiry's conclusions to the
state prosecutor, and rumours that Senator Toussaint had been named as a
prime suspect prompted violent street demonstrations by his supporters in
two towns. Toussaint himself claimed he was the subject of a conspiracy,
designed to sabotage his political career, and refused to recognise Judge
Gassant's authority. At the beginning of August, the latter formally asked
the Senate to remove Toussaint's parliamentary immunity but, by the year's
end, no decision had been reached.
A positive development was the re-emergence of the Haitian Journalists'
Association (AJH), disbanded during the 1991-94 military regime, and the
increased prominence of other media associations. The AJH, officially
re-launched on February, has been active in publicizing and investigating
many of the abuses listed above. The Haitian Press Federation, the Group for
Reflection and Action for Press Freedom, and the newly-constituted National
Association of the Haitian Media (ANMH), were also active. The ANMH was
formed in September by owners and directors of 12 radio and three TV
stations with a mission to help Haitian journalists' associations and to
professionalise the Haitian media.